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FSU FAD 2230 - Families

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Families Have Changed…Colonial America: families were businesses, schools, churches & correction, health & welfare inst.African American & SlaveryIndustrialized & Urbanized America: separate work & home lifeWave of immigrationPoor. Working class, middle & upper classModern America1950s: Leave it to BeaverDad work 9-5Mom worked at homeHouse & Car- Nuclear Family1970s: The Brady BunchIntegrated FamilyLive in Maid/nannyMom doesn’t workDivorcedBig family1980s: The Cosby ShowBlackUpper-classCliff-doctor Claire-lawyerMom wore the pants; taking care of multigenerational1990s: FriendsSingleGirls had more powerN one was related; friends can be family; modern young person2000s: The Osborne’sReality TV showsCurse excessivelyThey love each other; kids settle down1950s Family were idealRegular families have real problems2013s: 16 & Pregnant Modern FamilyKardishianThe BachelorModern FamilyHow is media showing diversity in one family?Types of FamilyFamily of OrientationFamily of ProcreationFictive KinPeople that are so related to you but their not really bloodFamily that’s not really family; by affection their important to youFunctions of FamilyRegulation of Sexual behaviorReproducing & Socializing ChildrenProperty & InheritancePassing things down don’t leave forever leave a legacyEconomic Cooperation & ProvisionFamily provides w/ anotherSocial Economic Placement Status & RolesCare, Warmth, protection & IntimacyUltra-Masculine?Ultra-Feminism?Key TermsSexBiological characteristics (male, female anatomy) determined at birthGenderCulturally defined attitudes and behaviors ass. W/ and expected of the two sexesWhat it means to be “masculine” or “feminine”Gender RoleThe expectations about appropriate masculine and feminine attitudes and behaviors defined by society; does not necessarily corresponds with ones sexSocializationThe process by which society influences members to internalize attitudes, beliefs, values & expectationsGender IdentityThe degree to which an individual sees him or herself as feminine or masculine based on society’s definition of appropriate gender rolesArgentic/Instrumental RoleTraditionally masculine characteristicCommunal/Expressive RoleTraditional female characteristicAndrogynyAn “in between role” have both traditionally “masculine and feminine characteristics”Nature vs. NurtureHeredity vs. EnvironmentThese are the “debates” concerning how gender roles are acquiredDo we learn them?(Nurture/Environment)Are we born knowing our roles?(Nature/heredity)Theories of Gender SocializationThese are various ideas about how we get to know what gender we are & what gender behaviors we expressThey ARE MOSTLY BASED ON A EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENTAL PERSPECTIVEMany of the theories incorporate aspects of nature and nurtureSocial Learning Theory(Bandura, 1977) Children learn (nurture) gender roles from parents, siblings, schools & the media who serve as models for masculine & feminine behaviorChildren imitate models & are rewarded for the “sex- appropriate” behaviorAgent of SocializationMass MediaParentsSchoolsToysPeersSelf-Identification Theory (nature)Child becomes aware of being either male or female around the age of 3Children categorize themselves by identifying behaviors that are appropriate to their sex boys find out they have a penisChildren socialize themselves from available cultural materialsGender Schema TheoryChildren develop a basis of knowledge about how girls and boys behaveOnce this framework is developed this schema influence how the child processes new informationThe child will retain gender consistent information easier than gender inconsistent information(SCHEMA- filter out)Chordrow’s Theory of GenderChildren develop a “primary identification” with their caregiver (usually the mother)Females develop an identity and model behaviors from their relationship with their caregiverMales do not identify with opposite sex care giver and must separate early to develop their identity and characteristics of detachment and independenceAmerican Families in Social ContextIntroNo Families are the sameRace/EthnicityRace implies a biological distinct group (based on physical features)Scientific thinking rejects the idea that there a re separate races distinguished by biological markersRace is a social constructionEthnicity is a nationally heritage, language, and religion, values…Link between ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES)Yearly incomeEducationGeographic locationValuesWithin Group DiversityRemember that within each “racial category” that there is diversity between the groups importantCaribbean & African blacks are differentKoreans, Japanese, Chinese, etc.African AmericanSES & LaborA higher proportion of black children (32%) than those of other ethnic groups live in povertyBlack women have traditionally been employedAfrican American MarriagesFar more likely to have never marriedMarried blacks have more egalitarian gender roles than do whitesDivorce rates are higherHigh rates of incarceration, poorer health & higher mortality has affected the sex ratio of African American menAfrican Americans: Children & FamiliesBlacks are more than twice as likely as whites to suffer the death of an infant68.4% of births to unmarried mothers in 2002The family system is child focusedKin networks extend beyond the nuclear family unitLatino/Hispanic: Marriages & FamiliesAs likely as whites to be married & less likely to be divorcedFamilies valuesCatholic religious values explain for higher fertility rateLarge households29% of Latino children are poorEducation levels are low (57% graduate from high school)Hispanic culture of hard workAsian/IslanderSES & Labor“Model minority” doing what society expects them to doLower divorce ratesPower in families range from male dominanceTeen & No marital birth rates are very low (less freedom)Lower fertility rateLower infant mortality rates than that of whitesNative AmericansHigh infant mortality rateTend to marry at younger age than black and whitesHave higher rates of cohabitationHigher proportion of divorceWhite Families:SES LaborWhite privilegedValue “privacy”Higher SES higher educationMiddle classMore likely to be married coupleLess likely to have extended family living with themOn average, have lower fertility ratesLess likely to ask family from healthConclusionSocioeconomic Status has a very high impactWithin group diversityExploring the Family: Theoretical Perspective on the FamilyTheoretical


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