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FSU FAD 2230 - Chapter 6: Communication, Conflict, and Power in Our Relationships

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Chapter 6: Communication, Conflict, and Power in Our RelationshipsThe importance of communication • Communication: an interactive process that uses symbols like words and gestures to both send and receive messages• Communication is a transaction, process, and includes co-construction of meanings• Sapir-whorf Hypothesis: the concept that language shapes our culture, and at the same time, our culture shapes our language• Listening: the process of giving thoughtful attention to what we hearNonverbal communication: what does that smile exactly mean?• Nonverbal communication: communicating without words, by using gestures, expressions, and body languageWritten Electronic Communication• Informality is the new norm• Our writing influences our speech• We have volume control over our messages• We have more relationships with less depth• We can live in the moment•Self-Disclosure: telling a person something private about yourself that he or she would not otherwise knowConflict: disagreements over decision making, problem solving, or achieving goals, which can result from differences between group members in personality, perception, information, tolerance for risk, and power or influence*Power: the ability to exercise your free will*Personal Power: the degree of autonomy a person has to exercise his or her willSocial power: the ability to exercise your will over another personIntimate partner power: a type of power that involves decision making along intimate partners, their division of labor, and their sense of entitlementCHAPTER 7: MARRIAGE: HERE, THERE, AND EVERY WHERE• Marriage: a legally and socially recognized relationship that includes sexual, economic, and social rights and responsibilities for partners• Marital decline perspective: the view that the institution of marriage is increasingly being threatened by hedonistic pursuits of personal happiness at the expense of long-term commitmento Hedonistic means pleasure seeking• Martial resilience perspective: the view that overall, marriage is no weaker than in the past, but that all families need an increase in structural supports over timeWhat is happening to marriage today?Delayed marriageHomogamous versus heterogamous marriages• Homogamous marriage: a type of marriage in which spouses share certain social characteristics such as race, ethnicity, religion, education, age, and social class• Heterogamous marriage: a type of marriage in which spouses don’t share certain social characteristics such as race, ethnicity, religion, education, age, and social classHomogamous vs. heterogamous marriages• Interracial marriage: a type of marriage in which spouses come from different racial groups• Interethnic marriages: a type of marriage in which spouses come from different countries or have different cultural, religious, or ethnic backgroundsSame sex marriage• Civil union: a public policy designed to extend some benefits to partners who are not legally marriedTRENDS: all are becoming more liberalAttitudes about nonmarital sexAttitudes about cohabitationAttitudes about nonmarital childbearingAttitudes about shared breadwinningAttitudes about the division of household laborMarriage premium: the concept that people are happier, healthier, and financially better off than those who are not marriedSelection effect: the hypothesis that people who marry may be different from those who do not marry; for example, they may be happier, healthier, and have more moneyEconomic Security• Wage premium: generally, married men earn more than their unmarried counterparts, particularly married men with stay-at-home wives (economic security divided into 2 pieces—if your married your better off financially)• Social capital- the goods and services that are by products of social relationships, including connections, social support, info, or financial helpDefining marital qualityWhat does it mean to say that a marriage is happy?Terms associated with marital quality:1. Marital happiness & marital satisfaction2. Marital adjustment3. Marital stability4. Marital successTypes of marriages• Conflict-habituated marriage: a type of marriage that includes frequent conflict, although it may be enduring• Devitalized marriage: an enduring marriage that exists without much passionCorrelates of marital quality:• Personal and background characteristics• Agreement about roles• Children & marital quality• Marital quality & the duration of marriage• Sexual orientation• don’t necessary cause each othermarital scripts• expectations a person has about what is appropriate behavior for husbands & wives• five different types of cultural expectations about marriage1. marriage as a conflict2. patriarchal marriage3. role-segregated marriage4. companionate marriage5. peer marriagethe marital gradientthe tendency for women to marry up with regard to age, education….Homogamy• people tend to marry people of similar race, age, age, education, religious background, and social class• endogamy: marrying within ones social group• exogamy: marrying outside one’s group• heterogamy: marrying someone dissimilar in race, age, education, religion, or social classreasons for homogamy:• live in close proximity• culture encourages people to marry others similar to themselves• people are more comfortable with others from similar backgrounds• people want to strike a fair exchangeExchange theory• Individuals pick the relationship that is most regarding or least costly• In romantic relationships individuals have resources: beauty, personality, status, skills, maturity, intellect, originality, etc.• Individuals also have costly attributes: being demanding, low status, geographic inaccessibilityThe marriage movement and covenant marriage• Marriage movement: the activities of a group of some religious leaders, marriage and family therapists, and government leaders who hope to influence public policy to promote and strengthen traditional marriage• Covenant marriage: a type of marriage available in three states that restricts access to divorce, requires premaritalPeer marriage: a type of marriage in which couples consider themselves to equal statusCHAPTER 8Fertility and mortality rates: the keys to understanding population growthPopulation and fertility trends• Fertility rate: a measure reported as1. avg # of children born to her woman during her lifetime2. # of children born per 1,000 women ages 15-44 3. # of


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