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FSU AMH 2097 - Themes from Midterm

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Exam 1

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What does it take for a group to become American?Assimilation = Americanization = “civilization”Must disown previous cultural identity and assimilate into American cultureAmerican culture = white Anglo-Saxon American cultureGive up identity, morals, previous values, etc.Receive unity, new identity, inclusion, etc.*What benefits come with a top position in the racial hierarchy?Freedom in job marketMore opportunities overall, no discriminationBetter education, can go anywhere*How did Native Americans live before contact with Europeans?Different types of dwellingArctic – eskimos, nomadic, smaller population, ice hutsPacific – hunters/fishers, farmersPlains – nomadic, hunters,New Mexico area - pueblosSeminole area – permanent livers, over swamps, farmersNortheast – woodland livers, hunters and gatherers, stableVillage – off east coast, tight knit, community styleSpecific cultures to each area, no two areas are the same*The Impact of European Disease on the NativesColombian Exchange – biological exchange between natives and travellersAztecs all died out due to smallpox brought over by conquistadorsKilled majority of Indians in the US within a few years*The differences between the Spanish, French, and English treatment of natives*How the relationship between Natives and English settlers in Massachusetts changed over time.French –Used Fur Trade to form alliance with IndiansIndians traded fur while French traded materialsHurons were French’s allyIntermarried with Indian women created MetisSpanish –Wanted to conquer and enslave IndiansFocused on gold, once Natives died brought in African slavesEnglish –Indians saved English in Jamestown and Plymouth RockGood relationship at firstJohn Smith kidnapped Pocahontas in order to force Indians to work*What did Americans mean by "civilization"?to “American”-izeget rid of Native American traditions bc thought they were “savage” and turn them into civilized white Americans*Andrew Jackson's connection to Indian Removalhe signed documents kicking Indians into reservations*The Differences of Opinion among Native and White Americans regarding Indian RemovalNatives – believed they were civilized peopleThought they were being treated unfairlyCherokees wrote their own constitutionWhites – thought they were savageBelieved in Manifest Destiny, wanted to expand into all of US*The development of slavery Developed from “POW” (prisoners of war in Indians)Wasn’t race based initiallyGlobal Commercial Market increase for “cash crops”Rice and sugar cane = cash cropsDutch were the first major slave traders in Africa – CongoSpanish – taken over Carribbean for rice/sugar plantationsNatives died out due to disease, Spanish brought in AfricansProduction of sugar cane grew and more slaves were brought overUS – slaves from carribbean were being brought into US from Spanish tradersWorked on rice and sugar plantations in US bc already used to itBegan the international slave triangleSlaves picked up from Africa – taken to carribbean – taken to either Europe or US“middle passage” – carribbean area before slaves were sent to US or Europemany died on middle passage*The differences between slavery in different places/settings Spain used slaves in Caribbean due to natives dying out from diseaseBrutal and lots of unknown disease – many diedUS used slaves for rice, tobacco, cotton, and sugarLess brutal than Spanish, similar numbers of slaves from both groups*The conditions of slavery rural areas - slave labor, brutalworked on farms and did physical laborurban areas – domestic areascooked, clean, drove etc*The ways slaves resisted their enslavement. SuicideEscaping/ underground railroadHarriet tubman famous UR conductorHenry “Box” Brown – shipped himself to a free stateCouple Kraft – lightskinned woman pretended to be white to escape slavery with her husbandRefusal to work/working slowly/breaking tools*The rise of abolitionism William Lloyd Garrison – white abolitionist with paperIdea was to free the slaves and send them back to Africa to live peacefully aloneFounded American Anti –Slavery Society (1833)Haiti Rebellionslaves on plantations in Haiti rebelled…and diedNat TurnerStarted a rebellion in VA, killed many whites, escapedFlees but eventually caught and killed, wrote a bookHarriet Beecher StoweWrote Uncle Tom’s CabinTalked about women losing children in slavery - emotionalGrimke Sisters – quaker abolitionistsLucrecia Mott&Elizabeth Cady StantonAbolitionist women who travelled to London to fight for slaves rightsCant even fight for their own rights – become womens rights leadersFredrick Douglass – freed slave, wrote autobiography, most famous oneNOT THE FIRST*The arguments for and against slavery, including biblical ones.For SlaverySlaves obey your masters – Paul’s writings for slaveryWe take care of the slavesSlaves are happyAgainst SlaveryStory of Moses leading his people from slavery in EgyptHuman rights, these are brothers and people tooBrutality, whipping, branding, etc*Push/Pull Factors of the antebellum ethnic groupsIrish – Potato famine, English rule and brutality, starvationGermans – religious/political freedom, civil war in GermanyChinese – bubonic plagues, opium dens, weak central governmentMexicans – gold rush, jobs*Criticisms of the antebellum ethnic groupsirish – drunks, catholics, always in jail, brutal, women were more manlikescientific racism - “they don’t look like us” they aren’t like usgermans – radicals, strange language, drunkards againchinese – sojourners (didn’t plan on staying) didn’t want to assimilate, violent, all use opium, questongs – violent chinese crime groups*Unique qualities of the antebellum ethnic groupsirish – mostly women coming alone..at firstwork in domestic areas, food and home paid for by employercoffin ships – like slave shipsmen worked in dangerous jobsstayed on poor side of totem polegerman – protestant (good), brought familieseducated,ready to assimilatemove westchinese –sojourners – only to work, make money, and go back to Chinasingle men, no families, worked construction/railroadsMexicans – vaqueros (farmers/ranchers)*Life in America for the antebellum ethnic groups, particularly employment opportunitiesirish – domestic (women) , dangerous jobs (men)quarries, mines, textilesgerman – jobs out west (farming)chinese – railroads/laundriesMexicans –faming, manual labor in


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