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FSU AMH 2097 - Race & Ethnicities Test 2 Study Guide

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Italians

Italians

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Midterm 1

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Test 3

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Exam 1

Exam 1

7 pages

Test 1

Test 1

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AMH2097-02Race & Ethnicities Test 2 Study GuideFour factors that ensuredsuccess of immigrantsIrish OriginsIrish Peasant LifeChain MigrationIrishScots-IrishScots-Irish in AmericaGermans19th Century GermansWorld War IWorld War IIAMH2097-02Race & Ethnicities Test 2 Study GuideThis study guide includes all the notes from the classes as well as highlighted and defined key terms.Four factors that ensured success of immigrants (Know each and how they differed for each of the immigrant groups discussed throughout the study guide)•Money •Judgment factor, the more money you have, the more WASPS like you. •Location •Money and location go hand in hand. The Irish were around WASPS all the time and they didn’t have money which makes the WASPS angry.•Numbers •The larger your population, the more the WASPS feel threatened. If you have enough money to dissipate WASPS like you better. For example if everyone settles in one area, Chinese in San Francisco, the bigger your numbers seem and the WASPS are threatened.•Stereotypes •good and bad. The WASPS loved the Germans, because brought beer and were tidy and lived on farms far away from the WASPS. Irish and Italian had bad reputations because the Christian thought that they were blood drinkers, catholic.Irish Origins•Large scale non-Protestant migration. They were the first group to come over who weren’t Protestant.•First wave migration.•Push Factors•Overpopulation-8 million people by 1800•In the late 1500s English began to take over Ireland and Pass discriminatory laws against them called penal laws. If you were catholic you couldn’t hold any political office.•Property act•Catholic land couldn’t be passed down to one person. It had to be divided between all offspring. Big pieces of land would be split up and after this happened a few times it would be too small to farm on.•If any of the Penal laws were broken it was punishable by death. In 1600 80% of the land owned by Irish Catholics, by 1778 95% of land was owned by Protestants.•Economics•Napoleonic Wars-1815•Tried to take over all of Europe with French troops. Came very close to invading all of Europe. Tried to invade Russia.•All of Ireland became a wheat field for the British Army. Once war was over all Irish tenants evicted to raise sheep for wool and meat. Irish Peasant Life•Religion•The Irish developed a strong attachment to Catholic Church. It was seen as a refuge. Churches were very simple looking and priests were young men, local, very tight group of people. •Daily Sustenance•Export focused agriculture.•Not much land to grow food on.•They came to rely on the potato and would base the meal on it.•You could get a disease from unclean water. People didn’t know you needed to boil water before drinking it so they began to make alcohol with it to sanitize it. It was the only drink they knew was safe. •Their diet was horrible, no vitamin C.•Potato Famine 1840-1845•There was a disease that affected the majority of the potato plants in Ireland causing many Irish to starve.•One million died and 15 mil leave.Chain Migration•Irish•They came on Coffin Ships.•Called this because many died on the journey of ship fever.•Ways to get to US•Paying for themselves•Many couldn’t afford.•Landlords paid their way.•They didn’t want to have to deal with their tenants dying and them having to deal with it. •Chain Migration•Either a family or village would compile their money to send one person to the U.S., this person was called the anchor immigrant.•This person then worked very hard and sent the majority of their money back to Ireland to get one more person to the US and this was done until all of the people had made it to America.•1840-1880 approximately 260 million dollars was sent from US to Ireland.•This money was brought back to Ireland by the Catholic priests.•For every $1 the anchor earned they would send 80 cents back to Ireland.Irish•Irish Immigrants were:•Poor, unskilled, single•The only skills they have are farming and this won’t work in the city of Boston so they end up working very low paying jobs.•They don’t speak English, only Gaelic.•They create Ethnic Enclaves.•Ethnic Enclaves:•These were ghettos where Irish would live.•It was called Southie in Boston, and Five Points in New York•The buildings were terrible and no one could do anything about it b/c the WASPS didn’t care about the Irish and they were the ones in government.•They used anything they could find to make shanties out of.•TB was very bad.•80% of children died during infancy.•Disease was so bad that an anchor immigrant usually only lived/worked in the US before they contracted a disease and died.•Jobs•Many WASPS did not like the Irish and refused to hire them and would post on their doors NINA (No Irish need apply).•They were forced to work low paying jobs such as coal miners or day laborers.•They were at the bottom of the occupational ladder.•Socially they were comparable to free and enslaved blacks.•Stereotypes•Many of the stereotypes given were based on their religion. They were called blood drinkers/vampires because they took communion. Also WASPS believed they sacrificed babies to drink their blood and this was the reason so many of their babies died. The WASPS thought they were brainwashed by the Papacy.•They were known as the Black Irish because they had many of the same stereotypes as African Americans. •They were Drunks. In Ireland the water was very bad and often gave people diseases. They drank lots of alcohol because they knew it was safe. This did not help the stereotypes given to them by WASPS. •NYC Daft Riots-1863•The Irish were mad they were forced to fight for the union in the civil war because they knew they were socially equal with blacks and it would only mean a more competitive job market if they were emancipated.•When the draft started they rioted and shut down the draft offices. •They didn’t like African Americans.•Catholic Church•The Catholic Church was imperative for chain migration to work. Priests would travel back and forth to Ireland taking money and guiding the new immigrants to America.•They were a shield for the Irish from the WASPS.•It was a meeting place for the Irish in America; they held mass, social events, sporting events, community service, dances, and other things. It was also a makeshift family for those still working


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