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FSU AMH 2097 - Study Guide – Exam #3

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Study Guide – Exam #3*Remember to be looking at what the groups in each category have in common but what makes them different*The key to this exam is to comprehend these groups by using/studying your notes!!!**Below is the most important part of the study guide**Latino Groups (Most of the questions on these groups because we spent the most time on Latinos so you will need to know push/pull factors, stereotypes, discrimination, assimilation/acculturation/resistance) • Mexicans- Push/pull factors – Americans push into Mexico for more land for slavery, Annexation of Texas 1845. Mexican War, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Americans took Mexican land. Mexicans did not “come” to American but they became Americans. After 1880, left Mexico because of conditions came for economic opportunities. **Mexican immigration is unique and diverse (practice many forms: family, return, etc). Why leave Mexico- Porfirio Diaz=President of Mexico, 1876-1911, Ruled with an iron fist. Rurales= Diaz’ army that “kept order” in the countryside. Mexicans became new source of “dirty work”. Zig Zag theory= 1920s- Mexicans wanted/cheap labor. 1930s- Great depression, exclusion of Mexicans. 1940s- WWII, Bracero. Stereotypes- Race= Brown – skin pigment = NOT white, “Mexican Race” constructed as lazy and backwards, Southeast – Blacks= Southwest – Mexicans. “Brown Scare” – Characterized as: Filthy and Greasy, Inferiority (cultural). 1. Lazy- Siesta- part of Spanish culture- Siesta is a nap after lunch (middle of day). WASPS see this as lazy. 2. Unintelligent- Tests written in English, They speak Spanish so they get bad grades. 3. Crime Oriented. Comprades- “friends”. Travel in groups; go back to Spanish sometimes after work. WASPS think they are up to something because they are speaking in Spanish and they are traveling in groups. 4. The “illegal” Mexican- Labor Cycle- “Zig Zag theory”. Media- makes it seem like all Mexicans are illegal. Discrimination- land whites pushed Mexicans off land. in 1850, 1/3 farm owners and 1/3 skilled workers were Mexicans. by 1900, 2/3 are unskilled labors, in 50 years there is a huge drop-off. Wages- So low that whites did not want them, whites didn’t even want jobs. However, during the depression, they did. Excluded from white labor unions. Maquiladoras – labor intensive manufacturing plants on Mexican border for hiring low-wage workers. These replaced the Bracero program- Maquiladoras replaces the bracero. Housing- Whites barred Mexicans from renting or owing homes in white neighborhoods Barrios- segregated Mexican-American neighborhoods in urban areas (bad areas)- Formation of gangs- Discrimination causes gangs. Gangs form when they are forced together into bad areas. Resistance (can put this for assimilation. They didn’t assimilate, they resisted). Chicano Political movement- 1960s- Movement that fought great political representation and less discrimination against Mexican-Americans. Unions- United Farm Workers (UFW) Cesar Chavez – nonviolent protest and hunger strikes. Assimilation- Bilingualism- Speak Spanish andEnglish, They learn English which is assimilation, So they can take tests, read contracts, read signs. Move/settle throughout Midwest, south, and northeast US. Moving makes them assimilate quicker. “Slowly but Surely” climbing in social status. Because of higher education- Higher Education- 2 year colleges and part time, So it takes Mexicans longer to get education and get better jobs• Cubans- Push/Pull Factors- Spanish American war, Cubans wanted independence from spain. Fidel Castro led Cuban Revolution. Stereotypes- Positive- Anti-communist, “Model Latino immigrants”, Golden exiles came over first and made good first impression, Affluence, Political Conservative (vote republican). Negative- Drug Cartels, Violent, “Brown Race” – take on Mexican stereotypes. Culture= Catholic- Santeria- Afro-cuban religion. Takes some forms of catholic and others and combines to Santeria. Church of the lukumi Babalu Aye v. Hialeah (1993). Family- Paternal, Maternal, “Compadres”- Godparents, Food. Discrimination. 1. Separateness – elites excluded from white social clubs and groups. 2. Jobs: 48% professionals dropped to 13%. Unskilled labor 16% to 32%. 3. Language – names, accents = viewed as Mexicans. *Entered the US Racial Hierarchy*. Acculturation- Enclave: Little Havana, Miami- Miami and South Florida. Keep Language, culture, and traditions, Community Solidarity. Family and Kinship networks. “Fractured Identity”- Cuban-born, older, fee like refugees, Ties to both Cuba and US. “Double Identity”- Second-generation, Come as babies or born in the US.,Embrace both Cuban and US culture. *only 13% said they would want to go back• Puerto Ricans- Push/pull factors- Wanted independence from Spain. Spanish American War=won Puerto rico in peace treaty. Operation Bootstrap caused 1 in every 3 to come to US, involuntary. Stereotypes- Take on the Stereotypes of Mexicans because of Spanish language and Hispanic names- “Brown race”, Crime-oriented, Illegal (but they are citizen), Unintelligent• Discrimination- Come over poor from “bootstrap” and live in segregated neighborhoods, results in: Crime, Gangs, Drugs, Teen Pregnancy- 65% high school graduation rate• Assimilation= Early Education- English, Ideals of American Democracy. Migration- NE cities to South Florida (Tampa, Orlando, Miami). “Double identity”- Feel like citizens and foreigners. Population divided on whether to remain a territory or become a stateAfrican and Afro Caribbean Groups • New Africans- These are the only people of African descent living in the US that were NOT part of the slave trade. Since 1965, descendants of the trans-Atlantic slave trade are migrating from the Caribbean. Majority from Jamaica and Haiti• Jamaicans- Largest group of Afro-Caribbean• Haitians- Duvalier dictatorship- Late 1970s – 1980s, Boat people, Largest settlement- South Florida. Little Haiti (enclave in Miami), Culture, Voodoo (becomes a stereotype)• All three groups- did not want to be seen as African American. 1. “downward assimilation” – assimilate towards negative aspects of the African American community- Despite wishes of parents, Experience harsh realities of American Racial Hierarchy. 2. “Segmented Assimilation” – assimilate towards positive aspects of African American community- Higher education: higher performance


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