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FSU AMH 2097 - Exam 3 Study Guide

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AMH2097 Exam 3 Study GuideSpring 2013The Chinese• First wave immigrants: 1849-1880o Only 300,000 came overo Immigrated to the West Coast, mainly San Francisco Stops in 1880 due to immigration laws• Push Factors1. Overpopulation• Over 1,000 people per square mile in China, the combination of overpopulation and crop failure meant many people starved to deatho Chinese used primitive agriculture techniques, rivers would flood and ruin entire season’s worth of crops2. Clan conflicts • Many families who were related by a common ancestor all lived together, societal structure in China. o Punta-Hakka Clan War from 1855-1867 killed many, served as a final straw for many people3. Tsunamis • Caused an incredible amount of damage o Between 1850-1870 there were 2 major tsunamis4. The Taipeng Rebellion • Began in 1850 and went until 1874. • Man believed he was brother of Jesus, thought China was morally corrupt. Wanted all peasants to have land, ban on alcohol and prostitutiono Starts a civil war against the emperor, 20 million people die in 14 years5. European Influence • Made China accept European goods for spices and silk• After Tsunamis, Europeans take over businesses and pay workers very little• Missionaries brought into china, split Chinese family structure• The one pull factor for the Chinese:o High paying wages: Golden Mountain and the California gold rush in 1848i. tales of people striking it rich in California• The Chinese practiced return migration: o Father would immigrate to America to make money, then return to China Thought money would protect them from the warfare and starving in China• However, this wasn’t always successful • `i.e. Lew family: son racks up debt back home, father must stay in America to pay off debt, never comes back to China• Mostly men came over, not many women. Called a “bachelor society.”o Often relied on their ethnic enclaves for support ChinatownsCHINESE SUPPORT STRUCTURES Clans Successful merchants• Established businesses on San Francisco and made a profit off of selling things to WASPs• Chinese merchant shops became leaders and people that others looked up to Hui Kan or “Six Companies”• Benevolent organizations that served certain clanso They each supported different clans. They provided a place to stay for new immigrants• If you didn’t have a merchant for support, you went to a Hui Kan o Had soup kitchens, apartments, hospitals.o If you died, they paid to have your body shipped to Chinao They tried to fix problems between Chinese immigrants and clanso Formed because the Chinese knew Americans would not help or provide welfare for the Chinese and had to do it for themselves.o They helped solve problems between Chinese immigrants. Mediators. Tongs• Chinese organized crimeo Operated in Chinatowns with services from Chinao Ran prostitution, gambling, and opium denso Smuggled heroin into U.S.• Provided assistance to immigrants, but for a priceo Had to pay back with interest• Different from Hui Kan because they made you pay, rather than a benevolent service Self-contained immigrant societies who had to rely on each other because they knew the WASPs would not do it for them.STEREOTYPES• Most of them were negative Pig tails – initially set by traders and missionaries Different diet and food Weren’t protestant; weren’t white• “yellow terror” or “yellow peril”• Weren’t monotheistic; WASPs don’t understand this City councilmen led Chinatown riot Jobs, style of dress, food Americans think the Chinese are backwards Believe they are all associated with the Tongs. They did not want to convert to Christianity. Could not wrap their minds around the concept of ‘one god.’ Feminine• They often took jobs that were considered ‘women’s work.’• They also wore robes which looked like dresses to Americans. JOBS• Many took jobs as miners (coal, gold, silver) and railroad workerso In 1850, laws were passed preventing Chinese from owning mineso Chinese given half-value for their gold, disliked by WASPs because of their skin coloro Eventually banned from mining gold for good• Many miners hired Chinese as domestic workerso Seen as “feminine work,” white workers didn’t want these jobs Chinese were ridiculed for their part in these jobs• In 1862, US started construction on transcontinental railroado Chinese in San Francisco went to work for the railroad company instead of the mines SF had low unemployment rate, only people looking for work was Chineseo The became the best railroad workers in the west, employers loved them because they didn’t mind hard labor One day laid 12 miles of track in 12 hourso Were used to light TNT to allow construction of railroado Accepted in the railroad community unlike the mining communityECONOMIC DISPUTES: Anti-Chinese Sentiment• Many white workers were anti-Chineseo They were hard workers, took jobs from WASPs, accepted lower wageso Because of these factors however, many business owners loved the Chinese Could pay them less wages and get good labor in return• Burlingame Treaty: allowed 10,000 chinese workers to help with railroad constructiono However, when the Chinese arrived in 1869, the construction of the railroad was nearly finished, forcing Chinese to find other jobs Took even more jobs from the WASPs• Chinese Exclusion Act: law passed in 1882 halting Chinese immigration for 10 yearso Passed because of large Chinese immigrant populationo First anti-immigration law in United States However, there were ways to get around it• In 1906, an Earthquake hit San Francisco destroying the Immigration officeo Chinese immigrants could forge documents and enter the United States under someone else’s nameo US catches wind of this, so in 1910 Angel Island is opened as new immigration center All immigrants were heavily questioned on documents, no interpreters were allowed Anyone who tried to escape the island was swept to see by the strong currents in the SF bay20th CENTURY AND BEYOND• In 1882, there were 300,000 Chinese immigrants in the US. By 1930, there were only 80,000o Many of this was due to anti-Chinese sentiment in the US• During World War II, America found a new “yellow” group when Japan invades China in 1937o Killed citizens indiscriminately, troops were allowed to rape women and kill innocent civilians 25,000 women raped and


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