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FSU AMH 2097 - Race and Ethnicity in the U.S.

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Race and Ethnicity in the U.S.10/28Gay Male WorldGay New York, George Chauncey, 1995- Not isolated, not invisible- He argues that gay people do not live in hiding; also that there has always been and always will be homosexual people- Heterosexual was not necessarily one of the things that men had to be in Progressive Era America- 1890-1930s, a very visible gay male culture, very mainstream- Saloons, small social clubs, large fancy-dress balls – Gay people are not only accepted, but expected- Working-class and immigrant neighborhoods because the people here are generally poorer and can not work to keep the gay people Waway- Higher class people consider gay people crude and vulgar and work to keep them out of their lives and neighborhoods- Mixed spaces – bars and such are not only gay, maybe only advertised for gaypeople one night of the week. ‘Inverts’ and ‘Fairies’- Man who preferred to have sex with other men- Inverts: often accused of men who wanted to be women- Also often adopted female or effeminate mannerisms and dress- Social Markerso A red bow-tie is something you would wear to a gay event to signal that you are an invert or a fairyo A green suit is another one of these items- Usually not thought of as homosexual, instead ‘bisexual’- Inverts and fairies began to reappropriate these words into compliments instead of a derragoraty term- It is not offensive to people that these people are having sex with others of the same sex, but it is the fact that they are not acting ‘manly’ enough.The Rocky Twins- Norwegian brothers that toured all across Europe and the U.S. - They had a principle club show in NYC- They sometimes dressed as men and sometimes as men- They commonly called themselves fairies- Known as “The Fairy Brothers”Large Bachelor Culture- Most men spent their free time with other men- It was not socially appropriate to hang out or socialize with women- Limited availability of women- Women are divided into two groups: either ‘pure,’ or not…often fairies lumped with the ‘or not’ groupo ‘Or not’ groups often consisted or prostitutes or women that could freely have sex with men- Sex was something men did to someone not with someoneHusbands, Wolves, Jocks, and Punks- Terms often used interchangeably- Abided by conventions of masculinity, preferred sex with meno These are the men that prefer sex with men, but are not feminine.- These people blamed fairies for all the problems associated with having sex with menChanges over Time- Sexuality much more fluid in 1890s-1920s- By 1920s-1940s sexuality becomes more rigid, a person is either hetero or homosexual- Why and how does this change happen?- The Beginning of the word ‘Queer’- Men who had sex with other men, but maintained a manly gender persona- More middle-class and upper-class men- Constituted the majority of hay men in NYC- Did not want to be associated with fairies or invertsMiddle-Class Animosities- Middle-class men were more anxious and hostile towards homosexuality than working-class men- Worries over weaknesso They are afraid that having sex with another man portrays you as weak- Middle class men began to tie heterosexuality to ideals of manhoodWorking and Middle Class- Working Class: as long as they played the ‘mans part’ (penetrative role) than it was okay to have sex with other men- Middle Class: purposefully organized men into either hetero or homosexualHow did the Middle Class do this?- Scrutinized male-male friendships- Doctors: medicine, psychology, sociology, anthropology all divided men into this binary of gay or straight- Rhetoric that ‘real’ men were heterosexual, anything else was aberrant- By this time it was not the way you acted (manly v. girly) it is strictly about whom you are having sex withOdd Girls and Twilight Lovers- A book by Lillian Faderman, 1991- Seeks to document lesbian life or female-female relationships in the early 20th century- Love between young women was considered very normal, even by the middle classRomantic Friends: 1880s to 1920s- Better education, different opportunitieso Homo-social atmosphere, all women’s sphereo Female professors- Seen in some ways to embrace gender normso Affection as ‘natural’ for women- After women left college many struggled to know how to lead their lives- Did not perceive themselves as lesbiansThe Development of “Lesbian”- Inverts: saw women as wanting to be meno They are not acting feminine enough- They could have sex with either a man or a woman- Acted and dressed ‘man-like’- Again, it is not the sex choice but the inversion of gender expectation that earns someone the titled of ‘lesbian’Again, anxieties over gender expectations- Doctors began to argue that inverts (lesbians) were abnormal- Believed lesbians might recruit other women to join them- Believed lesbians to be a threat to gender expectations, therefore must be eliminated- Romantic friendships get cast as dangerous and suspect by the 1940sFlorida State College For Women- 1905-1947 FSCW- 1905 Buckman Acto Applied to the 3 main universities in Floridao Said that schools needed to be gender divided UF = men FSCW = women FAMU = African Americans- By 1933 it is the 3rd largest women’s college in US- WWII and GI Billo When people enlisted to fight in the war the GI bill promised them a college educationo During the 1930s and 1940s there are so many men that want to come back from the war and go to college that is more than UF can handle. That is why FSU was created.FSCW- All women’s college- Social sphere for women- Their interactions with men are closely monitored (curfews, etc.)- Stringent interactions with men, therefore easiest and most available interactions with female classmatesFreshman Junior Wedding- Juniors dress as men and take the vows of a man- The freshman take the role of a women- This social pairing is not legally binding, just a fun thing to do- In the absence of men, some of these women begin to opt and prefer to play the mans role- Jack and Robert in the 1920s take on the full time role as men. They go to class dressed like men, act like men, etc.o When Jack graduates from college he/she stops this, goes back to dressing and acting like a womano When Robert graduates he/she pretty much acts this way for the rest of her lifeCotillion Club 1922- Dancing club, these women take the role of men when


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