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FSU AMH 2097 - Amh test II

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Amh test IIAfrican Americans in war and freedomSouthern backlash• Economic backlash- Sharecropping – white land owners who previously owned a plantation had land and engaged in contract with blacks to allow them to stay on the plantation. Only if they promised to take care a portion of the land to get the plantations back running again. Workers would pay the plantation owner with a portion of the crops they have been working on and sale or keep the rest. ~ Land owners were not honest , lied about money issues ~ Didn’t always have a perfect growing season, floods and droughts caused a low crop production.~ The debt of the blacks tend to build when they weren’t able to pay up at the end of the year, resulting into a cycle of poverty~ This was a “method” of Re-enslaving blacks after the civil war~ 1900’s this was considered illegal.~ Blacks kept a share of the crop- Tenant farming – can only give cash; same scenario of share cropping.- Vagrancy laws – laws that stated if blacks were not working they would be sent to jail.• Political backlash~KKK – emerge during reconstruction; Irish term that means circle of friends.~ People who thought their practice was a part of life.~ violent, intimidation was more of their thing than murder• Voting laws – methods to stop blacks from voting~poll tax – you cannot vote unless you pay, the backlash to this was that there was a lot of poor whites which affected the voting polls turn outs.~grandfather clause - can vote for free, as long as your grandfather was able to vote in 1865~Jim crow laws – separate but equal laws,~Minstrel show when people put on black faces and acted as a stereotype of blacks to entertain whitesThe great migrations: moving out of the south• Post civil war migration – got out ASAP and moved up north and out west, smallest movement and may have done a little of sharecropping.• Industrial revolution migration(1880) – mainly in the north a lot of jobs open up, competing for jobs with many immigrants, blacks were the last ones hired and first ones fired• WWI Migration (1911-1930) ~largest migration was WW2 migration~ one million African Americans moved north~ males were able to find jobs in factories~black institutions: made a larger scale community for themselvesChurch – center of the communityBusinesses :Madame cj walker – first African American millionaire; created hair care products.~ Harlem renaissance- artistic movement that expressed the dissatisfaction of the black communityThe great migrations• WWI migration (1911-1930)~W.E.B. Dubois, wrote “on being crazy”, first African American to get his doctrine from Harvard~Langston Hughes, wrote “A Dream deferred”~ Zora Neale Hurston, wrote “their eyes were watching God”• WWII Migration (1939)~Tuskegee Airmen – squad of all black pilots to make sure boomer plans made it safe to their destination~91st Infantry Division – division of black soldiers who fought in Italy with little coverage and protection~Two million African Americans move north~30% of soldiers that were sent are African Americans~ There was separate blood banks~ After the war blacks were fired from their jobs so whites could get theirs back.~ A significant portion moved out of the southCivil rights• The civil rights act of 1964 –federal leg. of LBJ(Lyndon B .Johnson); against public discrimination• The voting rights act (1965) – removing of discriminatory voting rulesScots-Irish 1765-1775• Formative wave – Scots take up and move to Ireland, heritage is Scottish but are from Ireland• “Highlanders” in Ireland• 250,000 Scots-Irish move to Americas, cross the Atlantic because they are tired of the British telling them what to do.• “Backcountry” – were they settled, W. Pennsylvania. North Carolina, W. Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee- Appalachian Mountains – thought of as the worst land to have farms and develop anything• Homes – one long room one door on opposite sides and no windows, built with logs and insulated with cow shit• Religion – Presbyterians- New lights – type of Presbyterians that were emotional in their practices. Didn’t have church buildings.- Weddings are interesting and violent; Bride- 13-14 years of age, Groom 16-17 years old, he would have to kidnap the bride. The groom would have to come to the brides’ house and try to fight off her family to get her.- Lutherans are called the frozen chosen’s- Traveling Ministries – travel thru out the back country, blessed marriages after they took place.• Whiskey/Bourbon – it was a part of their culture, they used it for many folk remedies.- Physical culture• Families and Clans – family is the inner circle; clans protect one another larger unit.• Highlander Games – meets of strength- Way of maintaining the warrior culture• Warriors- scot-Irish joined the English - Minute Men – getting the continental army ready 1/3 were scot – Irish decent- War of 1812 – when British tried to take U.S. over againFirst wave immigrants (1830-1870)• Proto-industrial Revolution(pull Factor for them moving) – pre industrial revolution (warehouses where woman would iron)- Unskilled labor – individuals who don’t have a trade( worked mainly in clothing and food processing)- Clothing Industry – ironing and sewing - Food Processing – plucking chickens and slaughtering animals• Irish, Germans, Chinese – came in the first waveFour Factors of Success; For all immigrants Things we look at to determine how successful or unsuccessful immigrants will be once they get to the U.S• Money – are they coming because they don’t have any money or coming with none which made things very hard for them. If they had money they had some freedom to take their time to get jobs and get settled• Numbers – how many of them that came, smaller numbers usually do a lot better than large numbers• Location – where do you settle when you get here, big cities near the docks had the most immigrant population. Linked with numbers• Stereotypes – what did we think of you people before you came hereIrish ~ Martinez is of Irish decent• The Irish (1830-1880)~Settled mainly in new York and Boston, cities like five points(New York) and southie(Boston)~ five points had roaming pigs in the streetThe Irish in Irelands• The Irish in Ireland• Overpopulation – there were more people than there were jobs• In 1840 Ireland is the most impoverished nation in the


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