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FSU AMH 2097 - Midterm 1

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!1!AMH2097 Midterm 1 Week 1: Introduction to Race and Ethnicity • Transition: the process by which people move from one country to another through migration and adapt through assimilation. • Assimilation: the process by which an immigrant adapts and integrates into a country’s way of life. Within assimilation, a generational disconnect occurs between 1st and 2nd generation immigrants where the 1st generation retains more of the ‘old’ culture. • Race: a category of human beings with distinctive physical characteristics transcended through descent and set in a racialized hierarchy. • Racial hierarchy: a stratification of physically distinct groups with substantial inequality between each group. German anatomist Johann Blumenbach developed the following racial hierarchy in 1795: (1) Europeans (Caucasians) (2) Mongolians (Asians) (3) Ethiopians (Africans) (4) Americans (Native Americans) (5) Malays (Polynesians) • Biological racial initiative: race was determined purely by genetics, using science as ‘academic proof’ to legitimize the established hierarchy. • Ideological racism: a doctrine that considers a group’s unchangeable physical characteristics to be linked in a direct way to psychological and intellectual characteristics thus establishing the basis for distinguishing inferior and superior races. • Racialization: the process by which those in the ‘dominant’ white group (particularly the elites) have defined certain groups as inferior or superior for social purposes such as enrichment, segregation and oppression.!2!• Racial group: a social group that persons within and outside of the group have decided is important to single out as superior or inferior on the basis of real or alleged physical qualities subjectively selected and generalized. • Ethnicity: a group socially distinguished by others or themselves on the basis of cultural or national origin (heritage) characteristics. • Minority/Subordinate group: a group singled out by society due to physical or cultural characteristics and are subject to differential, oppressive treatment because of such. • Dominant group: a majority group with the greatest amount of resources and ability to subordinate others. • Culture: the shared values, understandings, symbols and practices of a group of people. • Multiculturalism: the acceptance of diversity and coexistence of multiple cultures. • Stereotypes: an overgeneralization associated with racial or ethnic groups that goes beyond existing evidence.!3!Week 2: English Immigration • 4 distinct English-speaking groups arrived to the New World: I. Quakers II. Puritans III. Virginia Royalists IV. Borderland Immigrants I. Quakers • From Midland England and Wales • Arrived in the Delaware Valley (between 1675-1725) where there was fertile soil which made farming easy • Founded by George Fox (1647); a religious ‘extremist’ group that fled to the U.S. seeking religious freedom as they were persecuted for their individualistic spiritual beliefs. • Leader: William Penn – actively recruited followers in England to join the Quaker Commonwealth. II. Puritans • Arrived in Massachusetts around 1620-1640 from England; they arrived without royal charter funds (raised money independently and were not affiliated with any company) • Left England due to persecution caused by their criticism of Anglicanism • Radical group with a strict belief system with the goal to create a proper Christian society to adequately worship God. • Formed the Mayflower Compact – a result of the fact that the Puritans lived outside of the English government, its restriction and laws; the pilgrim leaders established a formal agreement with one another to abide by the laws made by leaders of their own choosing. This established a municipal regional government and became the basis of local government today.!4!III. Virginia Royalists • From Southern England; arrived between 1642-1675 on behalf of the Virginia Company to pay their debt to society as indentured laborers. • Practiced religion under the Church of England (Anglicanism) • Arrived and established the first permanent English colony of Virginia; had intents to mine and send wealth back to England and had no agricultural skills. However, they found their venture to be unsuccessful and many died – until the flourish of tobacco farming which allowed the establishment of a strong foothold of English settlers in America. IV. Borderland Immigrants • Came from the borderlands of England, Scotland and Ireland • Migrated due to their socioeconomic status in search of a better life and had no religion affiliation unlike previous groups. • Arrived and settled in the Appalachian backcountry where it was difficult to farm, and so remained impoverished. • Diverse group with varying speech patterns, dialect and culture but shared the ideal of natural liberty. • National Stocks: A record of the surnames and ethnicities of the immigrants. • Colonization migration: the migration of a group of people to another country where they would typically subordinate the indigenous people (e.g. The English and the Native Americans) • Magna Carta (1215): enables parliament to co-rule along side the Monarch. Why People Migrated to the Colonies: • The impact of the turbulent changing of hands causes discontent with the masses and influences them immigrant to the colonies for religious freedom where they could avoid constant restrictions and fluctuations without the fear for safety and inability to practice freely. Changing of Hands:!5!• Mary I: Catholic; known as ‘Bloody Mary’ as she beheads those who do not follow Catholicism • Charles I: Believes in personal rule, advocating the Divine Right Theory; he violates the Magna Carta and dissolves parliament • Oliver Cromwell: Lord Protector; permits free worship to all with the exception of Anglicans and Catholics to prevent resilience. • Charles II: is sympathetic towards the Catholics, which elicits fear. • James II: Catholic; fear of his rule causes parliament to invite William of England and Mary of Orange to the throne through the Glorious Revolution. Upheaval in the Colonies: The Effects of Changing Monarchies • Cromwell is engaged with mercantilist ideals and passes the Navigation Act of 1651 where colonial exports were manned by predominantly English crews on English ships back to


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