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FSU AMH 2097 - Exam 2

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AMH2097 Exam 2Four Factors of Success• What makes an immigrant group successful in the eyes of the WASPs?a) Money: more money, more likely to be treated wellb) Numbers: the fewer, the more likely to be accepted by the WASPsc) Location: can cancel out large numbers if a large group spreads out, this lessens disliked) Stereotypes: could help or harm• Money is tied to location- if an immigrant group was wealthy, they could move to the country sideGermans• Arrive during formative wave (1820-1880)• Each province before 1870s in Germany was its own kingdom• Those who arrived in America didn’t refer to themselves as Germans, they referred to themselves as whatever kingdom they came fromPennsylvania Dutch• Amish• Origin of “Dutch”a) Pronounced Deutsch (German for German) wrongb) Any blond hair, blue eyed considered a Dutchmanc) Left through Dutch portsWhy Did They Come?• Anytime countries had a war, battles were held in Germany• Armies lived off German soil, took food from farmers, which led to a lot of starvation in Germany• Religious wars: if you lived in a Catholic region and an Episcopal war broke out there you would be killed30 Years War (1619-1649)• 35% population of Germany died• Protestants fled to England and Holland• A main push factora) Also religious persecutionb) Cold soil for monthsc) WarsPull Factors• Pennsylvania can grow enough crops to feed families and also hold onto a surplus for the winter• William Penn offered religious freedoma) Germans (majority) were Quakers• Weren’t told of the Native Americans• Voluntary immigrationTypical Penn-Dutch Family• Hardworking and neat• Large families• Settled in east Pennsylvania• Sturdy barns/houses• Settle in own communities away from WASPs• Only speak German, don’t need to learn English• Made WASPs believe all Germans were like thisBenjamin Franklin• Afraid Germans were going to turn America GermanHow We View Germans• Largest immigrant group to ever come to America• 1859 Annheiser-Busch brewery borna) First to bottle beer• 58 Million Americans claim German ethnicity (17%)19 th Century Germans • First wave (1840s) immigration: 6 Million• Most Germans have moneya) Not many lower class Germansb) Irish arriving are poorc) Poor Germans that came stayed in citied and worked in factoriesd) Factory owners thought Irish were too dumb, so most jobs were given to Germans• Middle and upper class• Controlled by three countriesa) Independent provincesb) Austria and Hungaryc) Russians• 1848 revolutionsa) Failed to make itself independent, had to flee for their livesb) Included middle and upper classc) 48-ers• Upper class: well educated, democratic revolutionariesa) Only 10,000 came but were still politically activeb) Fought for slave abolition• Chain migration: when an immigrant came to the United States alone and worked to save money for family which was then sent back in order to pay for other family members travel to the U.S.a) Used to immigrate to the U.S.b) Bringing spouses, children, etc.c) First group: “Anchor Immigrants”Location• Primarily settled in Mid-Westa) Milwaukeeb) Cincinnatic) St. Louisd) These formed the German Triangle• Settled in places based on religion• Ethnic enclaves: areas within cities where ethnic groups lived• Only spoke English to communicate with merchants19 th Century German-American Culture • Kirchendeutschen: German grade school• Parochial schools: Catholic schools• Vereinsdeutschen: societies that help promote German values• German newspapers• Eventually become German-Americans• Germans tried to keep from assimilating and never assimilate fully19 th Century Germans: Model Immigrants • Set the bar, in every category, for all other races• Race: White• Money: wealthy• Numbers: only negative, but spread out and have money• Location: spread out• Stereotyped: industrious• Didn’t assimilate but wasn’t an issue because all stereotypes were gooda) WASPs appreciated thatWWI• July 1914-November 1918• All countries in Europe have large armies• Jealousy between countries• 1900: German Americans equaled ¼ total of American population• Alliances caused problems tooa) Heir to throne of Austria (1914) killed by a Serbianb) Declared war on Serbiac) Serbia protected by Russia, Russia declared war on Austria• Germany, Austro-Hungary, and Ottoman (Turkey) Empire vs. Britain, France, Russia (and eventually America)• Germans invade Belgium on the way to France and rob homes, taking food, etc.a) Germans start to look bad to AmericansWWI: Public Opinion• Divided into two groups• Woodrow Wilson• The “hyphenates”• Unrestricted submarine warfarea) Shooting torpedoes at ships without thinking about itb) Germans do this until 1915• Lusitania sank because Germans fired thinking it was a battleship a) 1,000 people dieb) Was breaking point for Americans• 1917 (almost 2 years later) Germans decide to go back to unrestricted warfare• Zimmerman telegrapha) Asked Mexico to enter war against Americab) Americans intercept this and declare war on Germany (April 1917)Anti-Germany Hysteria• APL: American Protective League• Germans (Huns) portrayed as monsters• APL started by a federal agency (with Woodrow Wilson’s approval)a) Private citizens who lived next to Germans would spy on them and take notesb) 200,000 participants• 6,000 German citizens encamped (deemed as a threat to U.S. in Georgia)• 26 states forbid speaking German in publica) Some even forbid German privately, toob) In L.A. could be in jail 90 days and $100 fine• German language books in libraries were burneda) Anything related to Germany banned• Ethnic slurs and harrassmentsa) Hun Skunkb) Tar and feathering: person dipped in a vat of hot tar and then covered in feathers and paraded around townc) Skull and crossbones on German businesses• Lynching: Robert Pragera) Accused to be unpatrioticb) Hung on the street after taking him out of jail• 19th amendment (prohibition) passes against German breweriesWWII (September 1939)• 12,000 Germans interneda) Based on nationality or political affiliation• German-Americans not seen as enemiesa) Seen as Americansb) Don’t agree with Hitlerc) Newspapers politically inactive• Some German-Jews came to America to escape• Dwight D. Eisenhower: German-American presidentIrish: Origins• Large scale: non-protestant migration• First wave migration (1840s and


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