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FSU AMH 2097 - EXAM 2

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RACE/ETHNICITY LECTURE EXAM 24 factors that determined whether WASPS would like that immigrant group:- Money- Numbers (large numbers = more likely to not like them) - Location (move away from where WASPS were = good)o All are related.. If group didn’t have money, they couldn’t move away from WASPS- Stereotypes- Germans = hardworkers; Irish= drunks1st group of Germans (formative wave) - Created a good stereotype- WASPS thought all Germans were like this, so they were excepted by WASPSPennsylvania Dutch; German- Settled in Pennsylvania - English called anymore with blonde hair and blue eyes, Dutch - Germans fled from German and were living in Holland (immigrated from Holland)- Push factor: Germany wasn’t a good place to live; split between protestant and Catholic; didn’t like each other; Wars fought in Germany all the time- armies would kill because of religious beliefs, caused diseases, Germans had to quarter soldiers o 30 years war- 1619-1649; 35% of Germans died; Germans fled to Holland (Penn. Dutch)- 300,000 Penn. Dutch living in colonies by 1776- Mostly Quakers - Pull factor- could own their own land, religious freedomWASPS liked Germans because they were Protestant, they built nice farm houses/ barns, fences (neatness), hardworking (best crops and farms)- met every qualification for WASPS - Ben Franklin- Afraid Germans were going to make Penn. a German colony (didn’t like the Germans)o Penn. Dutch mad no effort to become like English; Spoke no English, maintained Culture WASP liked it because they were staying out of their way Germans- Largest immigrant group to ever come to America- Introduced new things to America (Hot Dogs, Apple Pie, Santa)- Started businesses in America - Budweiser; started by Germans- 58 million claim German ethnicity - Most Germans arrive with money (Not many from lower class)Lower Class:- WASPS gave Germans factory jobso Fought with Irish all the time Middle Class:- Most Germans were middle class - Revolution of 1848; political and religious turmoil; Upper/ middle class participated in Rev. (leave or stay and German get killed) (48er’s)Upper Class- Make up the smallest of the 48er’s- Lawyers, teachers, start businesses - Politically active - Tried to end slavery - Democratic Revolutionaries Chain Migration- Sets Germans apart; bring their entire families overAnchor immigrant- work and send money back to Germany to send over extended family Location:- Primarily settled in the Mid-West- Settlement based on their religion (Protestant/ Catholic)- Ethnic Enclaves; Areas that only Germans lived within cities- Germans Triangle; between cities of Cincinnati, Milwaukee and St. Louis- Kirchendeutschen- churches had services in German- Parochial Schools- Taught in German - Vereinsdeutschen- cultural promoted German culture and heritage- German- language newspapers- news from both US and Germany- Eventually become German- Americans- begin marrying into American families, speak English to try and fit in; Don’t fully assimilate (still hold on to culture) After German Unification, relations between America and Germany continually improved - German Day World War I:- 1900: German Americans made up ¼ of American population - Germany, Austro-Hungary and Ottoman Empire Vs. Britain, France and Russia (eventually America)- Austria declares war on Russia- France had alliance with Russia (declare was on Germany)- Woodrow Wilson- declares American neutrality - German- Americans wanted to help Germany (sent food/ supplies)- Germany invades Belgium; looting towns, taking food from citizens (American public opinion shifted)- Germans began unrestricted submarine warfareo Lusitania- sailing from America to G.B; 1915 German submarine thought Lusitania was a warship and fired (1000 people died, including Americans)o American’s warn Germans to stop because they were killing Americans o 1917- Germans reinstitute unrestricted submarine warfare - Zimmerman Telegraph- Sent to Mexico; intercepted by America; Offer to Mexico to join war on German side; If America enters war, attack; they would give Mexico all the land that was taken from them by America o America declares war on German in 1917Anit- German Hysteria - APL: American Protective League- If you lived next to a German you could spy on them; ordinary citizens could sign up o Espionage Act- gave police power to imprison anyone who was doing unpatriotic acts; Post Master General gave power to open German mail - Internment - German Language: German language was banned in public and even in their own home in some states o Royal family in England changed their name, Changed the name of food (French fries- Freedom fries)- Libraries and Newspapers- Shut down newspapers and German literature was banded and burned in some cases - Ethnic slurs and harassment- “Hunskunk”; tarred and feathered- Prohibition- to put German breweries out of business - Lynching o Robert P. Prager – German-American; suspected of being a trader; 1981- put in jail, townspeople broke into jail and hung him Armistice - November 11, 1918; Germans called armistice; Once war is over relations between Germans and Americans go back to normal World War II:- 12,000 Germans interned o based on nationality or political affiliation- German- Americans not treated nearly as bas as before; Because the Germans were Anti- Hitler o Newspapers politically active- Japanese are now the American enemy - Dwight D. Eisenhower- Supreme commander in Eupore; German- American Irish: WASPS thought they weren’t very smart; didn’t like them because they were catholic; Failed all WASP stereotype of a good immigrant- Largest Non- Protestant Migration to the US until that point- 1st wave Migrationo No money- had to stay in big cities- near WASPSo Only thing they were good for in the eyes of the WASPS was moving crates off ships (lowest paying jobs)o Got the stereotype of being racist because they were competing with African- Americans - Economic/Labor immigrants - Push factor: o Overpopulation- 8 million people living in Ireland by 1800o Politics  English subjection; the more you around someone from Irish you would turn into an Animal; passed laws forbidding English marriage with Irish • English began immigrating to Ireland; conquered northern Ireland; Irish were slaves of their own lands Rural/ illiteracy- English didn’t set up schools; only wanted Irish for labor  Penal Laws- Made Irish nothing but Laborers• Popery Act- If you have a farm you


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