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FSU AMH 2097 - Test 3

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Italians

Italians

23 pages

Midterm 1

Midterm 1

14 pages

Exam 3

Exam 3

10 pages

Key Terms

Key Terms

11 pages

Test 2

Test 2

11 pages

Exam #2

Exam #2

10 pages

EXAM 2

EXAM 2

7 pages

Exam 2

Exam 2

10 pages

Exam 1

Exam 1

14 pages

Exam 1

Exam 1

14 pages

Notes

Notes

21 pages

Test 3

Test 3

20 pages

Chinese

Chinese

12 pages

Chinese

Chinese

10 pages

EXAM 3

EXAM 3

10 pages

Chinese

Chinese

62 pages

Notes

Notes

8 pages

Exam #3

Exam #3

10 pages

Africans

Africans

48 pages

Mexicans

Mexicans

12 pages

Notes

Notes

5 pages

Notes

Notes

4 pages

Exam 1

Exam 1

7 pages

Test 1

Test 1

12 pages

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TerminologyConstructed category for the immigrants coming from Caribbean, Central, and South America1. HispanicRoman name for SpainUS Government terms those of Spanish HeritageMexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, and Central or South American2. LatinoPreferredSpanish-Heritage, African, and Native American ancestryRacial HierarchyTop: Spanish ColonizersMiddle: Mestizos- “mixed people”Those who have Spanish blood combined with African and/or Native bloodBottom: Natives, African SlavesMexican History1821 Mexico wins independence from Span1830s- Americans push into Mexico and encroach on their land- slavery, expand more territoryAnnexation of Texas 1845- American slave holder and expansionists- territory aggression, blame it on MexicansMexican War 1845-1848Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo- Americans took Mexicans’ land (sometimes illegally)MigrationThe US acquisition of the “Southwest” in 1850s, Mexicans did not “come” to America they “became” AmericanFor those who immigrate after 1880Leave Mexico because of conditionsCome to U.S. for economic opportunitiesMexican migration is unique and diverseThey practice many forms: family, return, chain, etc.The Mexican experience- contingent on the U.S. Business CycleWhy Leave Mexico?Porfirio Diaz- president of Mexico 1896-1911 ruled with an iron-fistRurales- among that “kept order” in the country sideWhy Come to the U.S.?- Pull FactorsLaborChinese excluded- Mexicans become raw source of “dirty work”Globalized Capitalism- U.S. employers go beyond U.S. labor pool for low-wage workersExempt from 1924 Immigration ActWanted for low-wage agricultureMexican “Zig-Zag” Theory1920s Mexicans wanted cheap labor1930s- boarder patrol of INS created Great Depression, Exclusion, and deportation of illegals1940s- Bracero program- seasonal farm workers on contract to work in U.S., 5 million MexicansSince 1965 Migration1. Official Visa- only 20,000 allowed per year2. Commuters live in Mexico but work in U.S., men and women3. “Boarder crossers”- short-term work permits4. Undocumented or “illegals” backbone of McDonalds, clothing, electronics, manufacturingStereotypesRaceBrown- skin pigment = NOT white“Mexican race” constructed as lazy and backwardsSoutheast- Blacks = Southwest- MexicansMexicans were already here but kicked out“Brown Scare”- characterized as: filthy, greasyInferiority1. LazySiesta- from Spain- nap after large lunch2. UnintelligentBecause of tests written in English3. Crime OrientedCompadres- 5 or 6 men speaking in a language that WASPS can’t understand- seen as suspicious4. The “Illegal” MexicanLabor CycleWe had brought them here to work then pushed out and not toldMedia- “Southwest is one big fence”DiscriminationLandWhites pushed Mexicans off landIn 1850, 1/3 of farm owners and 1/3 skilled workersBy 1900, 2/3 unskilled laborersWagesSo low that whites did not want themExcluded from white labor unionsMaquiladoras- labor intensive manufacturing plants on Mexican border for hiring low-wage workersReplaced bracero program (for war-times and food production)Hire legals and illegalsHousingWhites barred Mexicans from renting or owning homes in white neighborhoodsBarrios- segregated Mexican-American neighborhoods in urban areasFormation of gangsAfter being pushed into poor areas with poor schoolsDiscrimination causes gangsResistanceChicano Political Movement1960sMovement that fought great political representation and less discrimination against Mexican AmericansUnionsUnited Farm Workers (UFW)Cesar Chavez- nonviolent protest and hunger strikesAssimilationBilingualismSpeak Spanish and EnglishSo they can take tests, read contracts, etc.Move/Settle throughout Midwest, South, & NE U.S.“Slowly but surely” climbing in social statusHigher education2-year colleges and part-timeMexican-Americans Today31.8 million (2010 census)10.8% of the population (a little less than Irish)30% of population in CA and TX23% poverty rate (13% national average)16% in managerial positionsCinco de MayoFamous Mexican Americans Today: Evan Longoria, Mark Sanchez, Cain Velazquez (fighter), Jessica Alba *Test QuestionImmigration Restriction Act1921Bolshevik Revolution- reason Act was passedMaximum number of immigrants- 357,000 per yearImmigration Act of 1924Known as “The National Origins Quotas”To determine how many form a particular country can come inOnly 2% of that nation’s population ALREADY living in USThat % based off 1890 Census = 2% living in US in 1890Overall cap of 150,000 per yearFrom 1924-1965 the “National Origins Quota” was the policyChinese still excludedMexicans did not count (with exception of 1930s because “Zig Zag Theory”)Groups not here in 1890…not getting inExemptions from 1924-1965ProfessorsCollege studentsMinistersWealthy BusinessmenRefugeesChineseJewsCubansImmigration & Naturalization Act of 1965Overturned Act of 1924Known as the Hart-Cellar ActEnded the 1924 “National Origins Quotas”Instead, 2% of country of origin’s population is allowed in per year170,000 overall cap per yearThe BasicsPreference given to immigrants’ skill and familial relationships to US citizensAllowed new immigrants to come from:Latin AmericaCaribbeanAfricaAsiaIndiaMiddle East“Third Wave” of Immigration: 1965-TodayThe BasicsAfter September 11, 2001 the INS (USUS) changes to US citizenship and immigration services under the US Department of Homeland Security (USCIS)Handles and forms and processing of materials related to immigration and naturalizationMost common examples:F-1: Student Visa- temporary residentI-985: Green Card- permanent residentK-3: Spouse Visa- petition for an alien relative is I-140Naturalization- process of becoming a citizenApplication is a N-400Eligibility to apply for citizenship must be a resident for 5 years, be a good moral character, and pass the language and citizenship examNaturalization ProcessLong and frustratingDiverse (different cases)Expensive (about $1200)Approximately 680,000 naturalizations per yearCuban-Americans19th century- Cuba is part of the Spanish Empire, some Cubans come to the US- Tampa and Key WestSpanish- American War- 1898-1902Cubans wanted independence from SpainUS said they would help Cubans gain independenceSpain left, US took over all Cuban gain independence1920s- US took over all Cuban military, finance, and politicsUS owned 90% of mines, 80% of utilities, 40% of sugar industry, and 50% of railroadsCuban Revolution1959- led by Fidel Castro- American


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