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FSU AMH 2097 - Final Exam Study Guide

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AMH2097 Final Exam Study GuideThe Jewish People• Sephardic Jews: Originso Low in Number wealthy, stay in cities of east coasto Spread throughout the 13 colonies (R.I to South Carolina) None in Massachusetts because of the Puritanso Brazil: 1640s and 50so 1500o New Amsterdam o 23o Not just from Hollando South Carolina Barbados Michael and Bernard Katz• Sephardic Jews: Colonial Erao 1700 Sephardic Jews came during formative wave o Location: Urban Centers Were not appreciated by the WASPs Had to stay b/c of their professions o Money: Middle-Upper Classo Social economic integration Even though they were talked about, Jews had money so they were invited to higher society parties  Not allowed to participate in politics• Not enough of them to make a voting block • Not allowed until American revolution  Revolution• Fought against the British• British policies were what affected them the most • But were not represented in the declaration of independence• Ashkenazic Jews: Originso Ashkenaz means Germanyo 2,750,000 come from Ukraine the Baltics  began in western Europe were expelled from Spain during the Spanish inquisition  after being expelled from Spain they move to Germany  after expulsion they move further easto Second wave immigrants: 1880-1920o Ethnic Enclaves: NYC Stay in city which they arrive b/c they have no money o “the pale” white Russia called this by eastern Russians reserved for jewish immigrants  jews were expelled from Moscow and made to live in the pale • there was laws telling them what they could and could not do  jews paid double taxes had to rent land could not own it jews could not obtain higher education  living here restricted ability to make money, feed family, obtain higher education• Origins: Push Factorso Limited economic, social, education, violenceo Population/Economic Russia 1800: 1 million Russia 1910: 5.6 milliono Anti-Semitism May laws Russification Protocols of the elders of zion• Written by Russian police claimed to be written by jewish leaders• Said jews in Russia were conspiring to overthrow Russian empire • Jews wanted world domination• Spread black plague among Russians • Poisoned whales • Killed Russian babies and used blood as sacrifice • It was believed that jews actually wrote it • When published in Russia many pogroms took place in the pale o Pogroms  Violence against jewish villages  Organized violence in “the pale” Entire towns and populations of towns were leveled o Russo Japanese war 1905 Russians went to war with japan  Everyone assumed Russia would win  Japanese sent a surprise attack on the Russian fleet Entire Russian fleet was destroyed Obtained Korea Russian want an excuse as to why they lost • Jews sabotaged their war effort o 2.7 million jews left pale settlement b/w 1906-1907 and 1920o 3 million jews stay • Family Migrationo Save enough money to bring everyone at once they will not leave anyone behind to face the wrath of the Russians • Pull Factors:o Religious freedom  Heard America was a land of opportunity  1880s delegates would arrive in pale settlements and tell people that there was land for farming, worship as you please, send kids to school  Russians saved the American west  Introduced winter wheat o Economic opportunity Own your own land  1880s-1890s• America was being industrialized • Needed workers • Jewish workers worked at factories b/c you did not need a lot of training to do the work • Did not have to be literate to work at a factory • Very little education • Interlude: 2nd Wave immigrant characteristicso Could not read or write o Spoke language very foreign to English o Religions were different  Southern Italians practiced Catholicism that was basically mixed in with magic  Jews practice orthodox Judaism04-03-13o Language: Did not speak English  Maybe 1% knew English o Unskilled Had never seen any type of factory o SAME PULL FACTOR: Need cheap labor  Religious freedom  Economic reasons • 1800-1815 everywhere france gained land jews were given citizenship o when napoleon was defeated jewish citizenship was revokedo the jews decided to be more like the catholics in order to be more acceptedo reformed Judaism allowed jews to learn the language of the country they live ato Before 1880 99% jewish synagogues were reformed in th US• Ashkenazic Jew: Cultural Conditionso Sabbath Day From sundown Friday to sundown Saturday  Orthodox jews had a hard time finding jobs because of this o Kosher Food: Food preparation laws  Made fun of because of this  Would not eat pork o Dress: Clothe was mostly black• Black to show there was a fear of God Covered up most of their bodyo Language: Those that came from Russia spoke Yiddish • Combination of German Hebrew French Russian  Did not speak English • Ashkenazic Jews: Locationo Urban Ethnic Enclaves NYC- Lower East Side 1 Squeezed a lot of people in one small location by the use of tenement buildings • Tenement buildings used by the Irish  Sewing machine was patented by singer • Clothes were made• Fashion capital • Jews would work from home and make clothes • Jewish immigrants were the backbone of the clothing industry in the early 1900s o 90% of clothes were made by jews in the lower east side • Were able to work and still practice the Sabbath • Ashkenazic Jews: Economic Conditionso Eastern vs. Americao Lower East Sideo Garment District Sweatshops/tenements• So many people working in closed quarters • Owners were able to check workers before they left for stealing• Would lock the door fro the outside so the workers could not leave o 1900-90 percent o Downsides o 1911 Fire changed workplace rules • conditions • hours• building codes o fire escape had to go up to top floor • 20th Century Jewish Successo Family and community Like the Irish, the Jewish people wanted their children to have it better than they dido Education Children were sent to college Jewish immigrants started to become doctors and lawyerso Labor Laws of the 1920s• Holocaust- AKA Kristallnacht o 1933 Adolf Hitler became prime minster and President  all other political groups were dissolved in his book he said he would remove Jews by any means necessary • Make conditions so bad that Jews in Germany would leave • 1935


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