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FSU AMH 2097 - Race and Ethnicity

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Italians

Italians

23 pages

Midterm 1

Midterm 1

14 pages

Test 3

Test 3

23 pages

Exam 3

Exam 3

10 pages

Key Terms

Key Terms

11 pages

Test 2

Test 2

11 pages

Exam #2

Exam #2

10 pages

EXAM 2

EXAM 2

7 pages

Exam 2

Exam 2

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Exam 1

Exam 1

14 pages

Exam 1

Exam 1

14 pages

Notes

Notes

21 pages

Test 3

Test 3

20 pages

Chinese

Chinese

12 pages

Chinese

Chinese

10 pages

EXAM 3

EXAM 3

10 pages

Chinese

Chinese

62 pages

Notes

Notes

8 pages

Exam #3

Exam #3

10 pages

Africans

Africans

48 pages

Mexicans

Mexicans

12 pages

Notes

Notes

5 pages

Notes

Notes

4 pages

Exam 1

Exam 1

7 pages

Test 1

Test 1

12 pages

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Constructed category for the immigrants coming from the Caribbean and central and south America.Hispanic:Roman name for SpainUS government term for those of Spanish Heritage.Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban Dominican and central South America.Latino:PreferredSpanish heritage, African, Native American.Top: Spanish coloniesMiddle: Mestizos-mixed peopleThose who have Spanish blood combined with African and/or native blood.Bottom: Natives, African slaves.1821 Mexico wins independence from Spain.1830s Americans push into Mexico and encroach on their land. (they are doing this because they want slavery to expand and make slave states larger)Annexation of Texas 1845: Leaves Mexico becomes Texas. (Not a US state yet, just a territory)American slaveholders and expansionist.Territorial Aggression.Blamed it on the Mexicans.Mexican War: (1845-1848)Ends with Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Americans took Mexican’s land (sometimes illegally)The US Acquisition of the “Southwest”In 1850s, Mexicans did not come to America (Mexicans did not move, they just became American’s over night)For those who immigrate after 1880 (with Italians and Jews):Left Mexico because of conditionsCame to the US for the economic opportunities***Mexican migration is unique and diverse***They practice many forms of migration (Family, Return, Chain etc.)The Mexican Experience:Contingent (dependent) on US business cyclePorfirio DiazPresident of Mexico1876-1911Ruled with an Irion Fist (If your not with us then you are against us)RuralesDiaz’ army that “kept order” in the countryside (Rural)Use violence and force.Labor:Chinese excludedMexicans become new source of “dirty work”Globalized CapitalismUS employers go beyond US labor poor for low-wage workers (outsourcing, sweatshops)Set up business on the boarder and recruit Mexicans. So they come over just for work but are not actually US citizens. Businesses on the boarder bring them over just for the day then sent them back.Exempt from 1924 Immigration Act. (no Chinese but they could come)Wanted for low wage agriculture.1920sMexicans are wantedCheap labor1930s (The great depression)Boarder Patrol of INS created.Exclusion and deportation of illegals1940s (WWII)Men join army and the Navy and go over seas. Women start workingBracero program: seasonal farm workers on contract to work in US.5 million Mexicans are brought in to farm.Official VisaOnly 20,000 per year.CommutersLive in Mexico but work in the USMen and WomenBoarder CrossersShort-term work permits.Undocumented or “illegals”The backbone of McDonalds, Burger King, Wendy’s, Taco Bell and clothing, electronics and shoe manufacturing.CUBANS:Push factors:Cuban RevolutionStereotypes:Positive:Anti-Communist“Model Latino Group”AffluencePolitical conservativeCulture:CatholicSanteria (Afro-Cuban religion)FamilyFoodNegative:Drug cartelsViolentBrown RaceDiscriminationSeparatenessElites excluded from white social clubs and groupsJobs48% professionals dropped to 13%Unskilled from 16% to 32%LanguageNames, accents = viewed as MexicansAcculturation:Enclave: Little Havana, MiamiKeep language, culture, and traditionsCommunity solidarityFamily and kinship networksPush Factors:US annexationStereotypes:Take on stereotypes of MexicansDiscriminationCame over poor from bootstrap and live in segregated neighborhoods, results in:CrimeGangsDrugsTeen pregnancy65% high school graduation rateAssimilationEarly educationEnglishIdeals of American democracyMigration:NE cities to South FLDouble identity1921Bolshevik RevolutionMaximum of 357,000 per year.Known as “the National Origins Quotas”To determine how many people from a particular country can come in:Only 2% of that nation’s population ALREADY living in the USThat % is based on the 1890 census= 2% living in US in 1890.Overall cap of 150,000 per year.From 1924-1965 the “National Origins Quota” was the policy.Chinese still excludedMexicans did not count (with exception of 1930s because the Zip Zag Theory.Groups not here in 1890…aint getting in!ProfessorsCollege StudentsMinistersWealthy BusinessmenRefugees:ChineseJewsKnow as the Hart-Cellar ActEnded in 1924 “National Origins Quotas”Instead 2% of the country of origin’s population is allowed in per year!170,000 overall cap per year.Preference given to immigrants’ skill and familial relationships to US citizens.Allowed new immigrants to come from:Latin AmericaCaribbeanAfricaAsiaIndiaMiddle EastThird Wave of immigration: 1965-Today.1965- PresentAfter Sept. 11th 2001 – the INS changes to United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS)Under the US Department of Homeland SecurityScreening who you let in, not who you kick outF-1: Student Visa.Temporary residentI-485: Green CardPermanent ResidentK-3: Spouse VisaThe process of becoming a citizenApplication is a N-400Eligibility to apply for citizenship:Must be a resident for 5 years.Must hold a green card for 5 years.Be of “Good Moral Character”Pass the language and citizenship examNaturalization ProcessLong and FrustratingDiverseExpensive (about $1200)Approx. 680,000 naturalizations per yearMariel boatlift in 1980125,000Assumed to be prisoners, communists, and mentally illNOT given citizenshipLived in camps (Cuban Haitian Entent)Boat People1994 (come over on boats)35,000US increased VISAS to 20,000 Cubans Annually.Positive:Anti-Communist“Model Latino Immigrants”AffluencePolitical Conservative (Vote Republican)CatholicSanteria-Afro-Cuban religion. Combination of different religions (animal Sacrifice)Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye v. HialeahFamilyPaternal (Father like Italian father)Maternal (Mom like Italian)Protects son“Compadres” (God parents)FoodNegative:Drug Cartels. Drug CartelsViolent“Brown Race: - Take on Mexican Stereotypelast names sound similar to Mexicans so the Cubans automatically were assigned the same stereotypes. Because Mexicans were first Latino group.Separateness – Elites excluded from white social clubs and groups.Jobs: 48% professionals dropped 13%Unskilled labor 16% to 32%Language: Names, Accents = Viewed as Mexicans.Enclave: Little Havana, MiamiMiami and South FloridaKeep language, culture and traditions.Community solidarityFamily and kinship networks. Key for survival and acculturation.Fractured Identity:Cuban-born, older, and feel like refugeesTies to both Cuba and USDouble Identity:Second-generationCame as babies or are born in the USEmbrace both Cuban and US culture.1.78 million1.3 live in Florida.Other states:


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