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FSU AMH 2097 - Study Guide

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Chinese

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Chinese

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Africans

Africans

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Mexicans

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Notes

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Exam 1

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AMH2097, McLeod: Exam 2 Study Guide Week 6: Chinese Immigration Outline I. Immigration by the Numbers II. China in the 19th and 20th century III. Early Chinese Immigration IV. Mid 20th Century Chinese Immigration V. Life Today Comparable to other Immigrant Groups Immigration by the Numbers • The Chinese arrive towards the beginning of the second wave of immigration (around 1820) in the post-civil war era. They come primarily as a result of the industrial revolution and the increased job availability; America has shifted from an agricultural based society to an industrial based one that requires a large intensive labor force that the Chinese were able to fill. • America had competitive capitalist economy; Competitive capitalism: when an industry of small to medium sized ‘for profit’ businesses expand to dominate and form a large economy. China in the 19th Century • Post 19th century: China was governed by monarchial dynastic rule with the leader inheriting the throne, typically being the eldest son of the 1st wife, as polygamy was not uncommon. The children of the 1st wife also took precedence over the other children. • Qing Dynasty (1644-1912): the last dynasty of China; it began to steadily lose its power through imperial influence and colonization due to the demand for luxury goods such as tea and silk leading to the rise of the middle class. • The Qing dynasty enforced wearing the ‘queue’ – where the males shaved their heads with the exception of a small point where the hair is allowed to grow and bebraided without ever being cut. The wearing of the queue was a sign of loyalty to the dynasty and became particularly significant in Chinese immigration to the U.S. as they were not allowed to return to China unless they had maintained their queue. Rebellions • Taiping Rebellion (1851-1864): revolved around the Christian doctrines of equality; it is considered to be a civil war in the South that lasted for 14 years. It was lead by Hong Xiuquan who started the rebellion based on ‘visions’ that were interpreted along Christian lines – he believed that he was the brother of Jesus Christ and began to spread Christianity to save the Chinese people from the non-Christian dynasty (that predominantly practiced the philosophy of Confucianism, Daoism and to a lesser extent Buddhism). Through his preaching he was able to gather bands of small militia that were unemployed and rebellious of the conditions. One of the major factors of the rebellion was equality for all that recognized the women as a part of the militia, thus abandoning traditional ways such as foot binding and concubines. • Along with several other leaders, Xiuquan declared himself King and with the help of Yang Xiuqing, began to organize rebels to move north and they are successful in 1854 when they overcome the government resistance. • The government receives aid from the Western world as a result of their economic interests in the trade port of Shanghai as the rebellion becomes a threat. The West aids with training and armaments of the Chinese army and are able to overcome the Taiping. • The Taiping Rebellion exposed the discontent of the people who were easily persuaded and willing to rally against the government due to their impoverished state; this discontent and civil unrest acted as a push factor. • Boxer Rebellion: A nationalist movement that opposed foreign imperialism, influence and Christianity and placed emphasis on the preservation of Chinese culture; the Qing dynasty had now become dependent on the foreigners to survive and govern their people as they had become significantly poorer and lost power.• The imperial army turns against the government and begins to work with the rebels; in response, the 8 Western alliance initiates the ‘Boxer Protocol’ against the Qing dynasty sending 20,000 troops to stem the rebellion and required the Qing dynasty to pay reparations in the form of $68m pounds; In 1911, the dynasty falls. • Republican Revolution: founded by Sun Yat-Sen, the Republican revolution marks the end of dynastic rule in China due to the discontent and civil unrest of the people caused by foreign intervention. In 1912, the Republic of China was established; it was meant to be democratic and based on equality. The Republican Revolution comes about as a result of other uprisings such as: (i) The Wuchang Uprising: begins with the dissatisfaction surrounding the Qing government’s handling of a railway crisis that results in revolutionaries fighting against government officials; the rebels are aided by the New Army. (ii) Xinhai Revolution: the event of the Wuchang Uprising acts as a catalyst for the Xinhai revolution and the collapse of the Qing dynasty and the establishment of the Republic of China. Early Chinese Immigration • (1848-1855) The Californian Gold Rush influenced immigration to the U.S. in the 19th century; many Chinese immigrants arrive with the intent to gain wealth and return to China. The immigrants consist largely of young men who send their wages home; the women that arrived were forced into prostitution to for other Chinese men. Discrimination • Foreign Miner’s Tax (1852): legislation imposed against non-citizens to pay taxes to the state for mining; this lead to people posing as tax collectors to exploit the Chinese which highlights the importance of the Chinese enclaves that formed to prevent exploitation. • People v. Hall (1854): the result of this case prevented Chinese from testifying against whites creating a racial hierarchy through legislation that lasts until 1873.• The Chinese eventually become the primary labor and economic backbone of developing California particularly through the building of the Transcontinental Railroad. Despite this, they are still subjected to discrimination; in the work force, Chinese typically received $36/month and no accommodations while whites would receive a minimum of $35/month in addition to food and shelter while constructing the railroad. • The Chinese enclaves facilitated saving, which enabled them to buy land in the West as well as send money home. • Burlingame Treaty (1868): between China and the United States establishing friendly relations between the two countries and granting China ‘Most Favored Nation’ status – encouraging Chinese immigration. This treaty is reversed by the Chinese Exclusion Act. • Chinese Exclusion Act (1882): suspended the


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