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FSU AMH 2097 - Week 11: Latin-American Immigration

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Week 11: Latin-American Immigration Outline I. Short History of Mexico, Cuba, Puerto Rico II. Early 20th Century Immigration III. Late 20th Century Immigration IV. Illegal Immigration Issues Latinos (Hispanics): the term given to Americans with origins in the Hispanic countries in Latin America or Spain, and in general all who self-identify as Latino or Hispanic. Short History of Mexico, Cuba, Puerto Rico History of Mexico • The Spanish Conquerors arrive in the 1500s with the intent to find gold under the guise of spreading Catholicism. As a result, small settlements emerge over Mexico, enslaving the native people and forcing them to aid in the search for gold. • The Spaniards that arrived were primarily men, and there was a lack of women. As a result, many had relations with the native people producing mixed children that were deemed as ‘Mestizos’. However, these mixed Mestizo children were often times legitimized through interracial marriages of the Spaniards and the native peoples.• In 1821, Mexico gains independence from Spain; Mexico used to contain the area in what is now the Southwest U.S. (Texas, California, New Mexico etc.) • The Mexican government began to limit the number of American immigrants that could come to Mexico due to the increasing number of Americans that enslaved Mexicans in the territory of Tejas (Texas). This was largely due to the fact that American-born citizens began to outnumber the amount of Mexican-born citizens occupying the region. • Texas Revolution: Due to the large number of American citizens occupying ‘Tejas’ (Texas), the U.S. believed that it should be apart of the United States as opposed to Mexican territory. This lead to them establishing the Alamo – where 100 Texians were garrisoned to maintain the expulsion of Mexicans out of the region. • In 1845, Texas is annexed into the U.S. • Mexican-American War: The U.S. then declared war on Mexico from 1846-1848 in wake of Texas now being considered a part of America. American forces invaded New Mexico, the Californian Republic, Texas, Northern, Central and Eastern Mexico and Mexico City. • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: the peace treaty between Mexico and the United States (largely dictated by the United States) that ended the Mexican-American war. The treaty provided for the Mexican Cessation (claiming the territories of California, Arizona, and New Mexico) to the United States in exchange for $15M. Furthermore, it recognized the Republic of Texas or its annexation by the United States.• Mexicans that occupied this area were granted American citizenship. Mexican Revolution • Lasted from 1910-1917 • A Civil war in response to the corruption in the Mexican government lead by the autocratic President Porifirio Diaz. At the time, officials were only allowed to serve for 1 term in government, but through heavy corruption, Diaz did not abide by this and manipulated his successor to carry out his will. • Pancho Villa – a Mexican revolutionary general that coordinated attacks on American territories that were exploiting Mexican land for gold. • Carranza is instated as President of Mexico (1914-1920) and the revolution ends under him. However, civil unrest continues and he is assassinated in 1920. His assassination leads to “fringe” groups (terrorist militias) forming. • Corruption continues throughout Mexico’s political system with the intent of distancing itself from American influence History of Cuba • A colony of Spain that primarily produced cattle, sugar cane and tobacco. • The Native Indian population begins to die out with the arrival of the Spaniards due to foreign disease. As a result, the Spanish replace the absent labor force with African slaves. Slavery is abolished in Cuba in 1886. • It is one of the last major Spanish colonies to gain independence (remained loyal when other Latin American countries began to revolt against Spain in the 1820s and thus gained independence in 1868).• Jose Marti – a Cuban national hero that was pivotal in the push for independence against Spain in 1895 through the Cuban War of Independence. • Spanish-American War (1898): A conflict between Spain and the United States because of the U.S. intervention in the Cuban War of Independence. At the time, the Spaniards had been pushing native Cubans into ‘concentration camps’ to stem revolts. ‘Yellow journalism’ occurs in the United States sensationalizing the people to the Cubans in concentration camps, ultimately ‘exaggerating’ the plight of the Cubans to gain American sympathy. • The U.S. sends the USS Maine to be stationed outside of Cuba as a precautionary measure; however, the USS Maine explodes due to a boiler malfunction, which the U.S. blames on Spain as an excuse to expel them from the Western Hemisphere. • Platt and Teller Amendment: recognized Cuba’s independence but grants America the right to station military force in the country in the event of war. The U.S. is granted access to Guantanamo Bay. • After, Cuba is left with no strong leader.History of Puerto Rico Now known as the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico as an American territory. It is considered part of the United States, the people are considered US citizens but do not have federal voting rights.• Spanish Colony: Spain occupies Puerto Rico from 1493 until the late 1800s. Initially, there was an indigenous population of 50,000 people but were forced into slavery/forced labor and die out due to disease and brutality. • Lives in a period of fluctuation that leads to a diverse culture: African, English, Caribbean, Spanish presence. • Puerto Rico decides to assert their independence and gain political autonomy in 1897. However when the Spanish-American war occurs, Spain gives Puerto Rico to America. • In 1899, Puerto Rico is an American territory and a political system is instated. A governor would be put in place of US origin to oversee the country. The language in school is changed to English and all issues of government is subject to the veto of American government. Puerto Rico has no political autonomy. • In 1917, the Jones Act awards American citizenship to all Puerto Rican citizens. They are not able to vote in federal elections or vote for their ruler. • 1948: The Puerto Rican population can vote for their governor. • 1952: The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and are allowed to adapt their own constitution, laws etc.


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