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FSU AMH 2097 - Exam #2 – Study Guide

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AMH2097 Exam #2 – Study GuideIrish, Chinese, Italians, & JewsIRISHPush Factors (Why they left their home country)-1. Plantation system: English protestant confiscated land for livestock grazing or export production. 2. Penal laws: Denied landowning and voting rights to Catholics. 3. Potato Blight of the 1840’s: “Gorta Mor”, famine, starvation, and poverty.Where they settled (City and name of enclaves)-Settled in predominately Urban, Northeastern parts. Major cities: NYC, Boston, and Philadelphia. Enclaves: “Southie” in Boston, “Five-Points” in NYC.Type of Migration-Involuntary MigrationChain Migration: A single member of a family comes first, sends money home for one or more members to follow.Who migrated? Predominately young single women and men who migrated.Labor- what kind of jobs?Men (Unskilled): Docks, construction, textile mills, and factories. (Migrants): Miners, farm laborers, transportation-railroads, and canal laborers. Women: Domestic servants/ work in the tenement houses.Life in the Enclave-Bare Knuckle Boxing, Pub Culture, Tenement Houses“Political Machine” - Example: Tammany Hall“Political Boss”- Example: Boss TweedStereotypes-1. Catholic- Brainwashed by the Papacy, Transubstantiation (Communion) 2. Race- Ape-Like, “Black Irish”3. Inferior –Immoral, Lazy, Uneducated, Gender (Names for man and woman) 4. Drunk- English-Americans used Pub Culture to legitimize notion that ALL Irish were alcoholicsDiscrimination they faced-NINA- No Irish Need ApplyReact with resistance- strikes, created labor groups, expanded westwardAssimilation- in what ways they became accepted and/or upward mobility1. English-Americans change their viewsa. During 1880s-1920s “New Immigrants” come so the Irish become the “Old Immigrants” – Irish are lighter skinned, Catholic is better than Judaism 2. Irish-Americans adapt too! a. Cultural Assimilation-i. Languageii. The exception is that the Irish remained Catholic b. Mostly remained unskilled but some become skilled/educated, Catholic schools provide education What they are known for today (i.e. “Irish Americans Today”)Completely assimilatedCatholic Church St. Patrick’s Day - 11% US PopulationCHINESEPush Factors (Why they left their home country)-Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864)- the Chinese Civil War between Qing v. Han Dynasty, 20 million deadNatural Disasters- floodsFamine- droughtFemale Infanticide- mothers know how terrible life will be for their daughter so they kill it Economic- ImperialismOpium WarsWanted to take advantage of the Gold Rush in California 1849, “Gold Mountain”Where they settled (City and name of enclaves)-San Francisco, California & NYC –“Chinatowns”Type of Migration - Involuntary (life sucked in China) Return Migration (came to the U.S. with the intention of making money and returning to China)Who migrated? - Men, women, single, families, etc.Mostly single men although some women Labor- what kind of jobs?Men- Railroads- Transcontinental, explosives, “Dirty Work”- unskilled labor, Miners, Laundresses- feminine stereotype, Domestic Servants- usually a women’s job, Shop Keepers Women- very few came, those who did were tricked and sold into prostitution in China and bought as sex-slaves by American merchantsLife in the Enclave-Tongs gang- Began as a protective group against Whites, became corrupt, and were known as a gang or the “Chinese Mafia”, Opium Dens, Six-CompaniesStereotypes: Cultural- weren’t familiar with their cultureToo smart, sneaky “Yellow Peril”- skin pigment and fear they would take WASP jobsDiscrimination they faced-Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 – Chinese aren’t allowed to come to the US, if you’re already here: you can’t become a citizen but you don’t have to leaveAssimilation- in what ways they became accepted and/or upward mobilityFirst generation acculturated and 2nd assimilated and acculturated! Today’s Chinese-Americans have completely assimilated. The Second-Generation Conflict-Generational Conflict: Mothers & Daughters Chinese Cultural- (First Generation)Obedience to ancestors, take care of elders, Patriarchal Society- lack of rights for women, expected to inter-marryChinese children will… (Second Generation- ASSIMILATION)Speak English, go to college, marry outside their race, and move outside of ChinatownWhat they are known for today?New Stereotypes- honest, highly educated, strong family values, hard workersITALIANSPush Factors (Why they left their home country)-Italian Unification, Economy, Catholic Church, Overpopulation, Natural DisastersWhere they settled (City and name of enclaves)-Ethnic enclave: “Little Italy”. Northeastern cities: NYC, Boston, and Philadelphia. Midwestern Cities: Chicago and Detroit.Type of Migration - Chain, Return, Permanent, etc.Involuntary Migration Return Migration: came to the US with the expectation to make money and then return home, no intention to stay. Who migrated? - Men, women, single, families, etc.FamiliesLabor- what kind of jobs?Unskilled workers. Canals, railroads, water/sewer system, construction, docks, and factoriesLife in the Enclave-Social, Family-Oriented People; Weddings: “Bloody Sheet”. Family: Travel and settle as families. Political clubs. Festivals. Mutual-Aid Societies: Members made monthly payments to assist others with housing, daycare, funerals, etc.Stereotypes-Catholic. They make wine so they are seen as being drunks. Race: inferior, dangerous, disloyal and criminals. “Mafia” MythDiscrimination they faced-Wages, dangerous conditions, labor unions, WWI, targeted and arrested by FBIAssimilation- in what ways they became accepted and/or upward mobilitySome forms of Italian culture accepted, GI Bill giving them opportunities to serve and get educated- transitioned to skilled jobs education The Second-Generation Conflict-Mother vs. Son Conflict, Speak English, Intermarriage, Catholic Church attendance declinesWhat they are known for today-“Little Italy”- Keeping their ethnic traditionsJEWSPush Factors- (Why they left their home country)Mainly Russification but later Nazi Germany- HolocaustWhere they settled (City and name of enclaves)Northeastern- “Lower East Side”Type of Migration - Chain, Return, Permanent, etc.InvoluntaryPermanent migrationWho migrated? - Men, women, single, families, etc.FamiliesLabor- what kind of jobs?Began as unskilled- heavy industry, manufacturing. Later, “Middle –Men”: Merchants, trade, shopkeepers. Few


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