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FSU AMH 2097 - Race and Ethnicity

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Race and Ethnicity Final Exam The Chinese- First wave immigrants (1849- 1880)- 300,000 (small number) - Unique….o West coast migrationo Laws passed against Chinese immigration o Discriminated; “yellow”- Push factor:o 85% from the same region- Guandong Province  Overpopulation; 1000 people per square mile in Guandong • Crop failure became a problem • Primitive agriculture practices; wooden plows, same crops  Natural disasters• Flooded rivers• Tsunamis o Two major Tsunamis o Large amount of damageo Further hurt an already weaken economy o Europeans were able to become more embedded in the Guandong economy so they could rebuildo Clan conflicts; A clan is the connection of a lot of families that are related by a late ancestor  Societal structure Supported Emperor  Punti-Hakka Clan War- Taishan (1855- 1867)• Clans killed each other over petty issues  Hundreds of thousands of people died o Rebellion Taiping Rebellion (1850- 1864)• Hong Xiuquan believed he was brother of Jesus; believed China was morally corrupt and believed he could reform China for the good of the peasant. Had a large following and declared war on the Emperor- lost • 20 million Chinese died o European Influence Trade agreements; Europeans controlled companies and economy  Colonialism Christian Missionaries- began splitting chinese families/ clans over conversing family members Anglo-Chinese Wars - Pull Factors o Clipper Ships; how chinese found out about America- used ships to hunt and trade with chineseo High paying wageso Golden Mountain- what chinese called America o California Gold Rush 1848- Chinese were told about gold by sailors on Clipper shipso Symbol of Wealth - Return Migration; one member would go to America and make money; go back to China and live in China o Patriarchico Confucianismo Return multiple timeso Family improvement o Lew Family- Lew Git came to America to practice return migration; left oldest son in charge of family; sent $ to America and son kept buying land on credit; died in America paying off debts that his son was running up in China o Single men; not many women “Bachelor society”- Location o San Francisco, Californiao Ethnic Enclaves- Chinatown o Mostly stayed on the West Coast - Jobso No Go on Gold- Chinese worked too hard, harder than white Americans  First law California set in place was that Chinese were not allowed to own Gold mines; Chinese worked for whites  “Yellow Price”; Chinese would mine gold and exchange in for America dollars; Chinese got ½ the normal exchange for gold (before law)o Miners, Railroad workers Transcontinental Railroad- Chinese worked for company that started in San Fran.; became best railroad workers, set records (10 miles of tracks a day)o Domestic Work- “Feminine Jobs”; Chinese would wash clothes and cook food for white miners because it was “women’s work” o Migrant workerso Fishing o Dream of Golden Mountain shattered, but still able to find jobs- Chinese Support Structureso Hui Kaun- started in Beijing, China places were people from Guandong could stay when visiting the Capitol Food, shelter, medical care  Basically union centers; In Beijing to look after the well being of Guandong  Each clan set up Hui Kauns in America• A place to stay until you could support yourself• Six companies (6 Hui Kaun’s)o Made rules for Chinese immigrants in America o The repetitives didn’t want to give the WASPs any reason to not like themo Set up committees to look after immigrants; protected them against extortion, and being taken advantage ofo Made sure there was no Clan violence o Tongs- Chinese Mafia  Opportunity to take advantage of dumb Americans Run illegal business in America (drugs, alcohol, and prostitution) Used some money from activities to help Chinese immigrants  Provided burial insurance; made sure body got back to China for burial - Stereotypeso Yellow peril; all Asians were inferior to Whites o WASPs harass Chinese because of Religion o Jobs- “Women’s work”o Dress Wore robes; “Dresses” Hair; wore in a pig tail o WASPS made fun of Chinese because of their diet/food - Anti- Chinese Sentiment Chinatown- dirty and run down (criminal stereotype)  Violence  Economic Disputes• Chinese workers were harder working and would work for less- American workers disliked their work ethic• American business owners were pro Chinese- paid them less for a better days work • Burlingame treaty 1868; Between U.S and emperor of China; allow American business to hire 10 thousand Chinese workers to build railroads; Transcontinental railroad finished that year; Chinese workers were stuck in U.S without work, began taking American jobs• Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882; said that Chinese immigration would be stopped for 10 years; because of the excess Chinese workers taking American jobs; First law to be passed to stop an immigrant group from coming to U.S• Scott Act 1888; Extended Chinese exclusion indefinitely o 1906 Earthquake; Hit San Fran.; All Chinese had to register with the U.S; These records were held in San Fran in a building that was destroyed in the earthquake; Chinese immigrants could now forge documents to enter the U.S under the name of someone already in the U.S Paper Sons- Chinese that used these forged documents to stay in the U.S Angel Island- all ships that carried immigrants had to stop on Angel Island in San Fran.; Built to stop illegal immigration of Chinese (U.S solution to the Paper Sons) - 20th Century and beyondo WWII 1930; Americans find a new “yellow threat”- the Japaneseo Model Minority; Chinatowns are now tourist attractions; now accepted o 1.6 million Americans of Chinese decent today Second wave of immigrants - Come from Europe enter through NYC, Philly, Boston - Non English speaking- Unskilled The Jews: - Arrive with harshest stereotypes - Hated by Christians o Went back 200 years- Killers of Jesus Christ  Judas betrayed Jesus, he was a Jew Crusades; 1st crusades took Jerusalem from Muslims; killed everyone. Muslims and Jews were the same to Crusaders o Economics  Usury- Christians had to begin borrowing money from Jews, Jews would charge interest. Christians didn’t want to pay interest (thought Jews were being cheap)o Exclusion - Stereotypes of Jewso Jews could not be trusted Jews were trying to take over the world o Cheapo Henry Ford; published one of the most anti- sematic


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