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FSU AMH 2097 - History of African Americans in the 20th Century Through Film

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AMH2097 TEST 2History of African Americans in the 20 th Century Through Film Blackface, Stereotypes, and BeyondHistory – Before Film…-Minstrel Shows-Jim Crow character-Animal-like, savage-like, buffoon  made fun of-Whites dressed up and acted like fools… Wore “blackface”The Early Days of Film: 1910s-1920s-Old South and its “Lost Cause” -… fake reality-About African Americans on plantation = happy slaves-Idea that the South would rise again & get slavery back-‘If only the South won, things would be great’-Hearts and Flags (1911)-1st African American portrayed in film… by a white actor with blackfaceAfrican American Stereotypes in Film (1910-???? Cont.)Five main stereotypes seen in film1- Uncle Tom-Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin (book; 1852)-Black character who will stand up for their master-Slave who loves their master-Older/grandfather figure; non-sexual character2- Mammy (female)-Gone with the Wind (1939) – 1st African American woman to win an Academy Award-Loves the people she works for-Non-sexual character-Usually a house slave; cook, maid, etc-Aunt Jemima3- Sambo (Coon)-The Story of Little Black Sambo (book) by Helen-New term for Jim Crow-Buffoon, dark skin, big lips; comic relief-Always seen eating fried chicken/watermelon4- Black Brut (Buck, “Mandingo Negro”)-Obsessed with white women-Sexual character, lust (negative portrayal)-Seen as someone who has to have sex with every white woman 5- Jezebel-Uses her sexuality to her benefit (usually towards white men)-Can only get ahead with sexualityAnother View “ Race Films ” (1910-1930s): -African Americans created their own films… no blackface-African Americans produce, direct, and act-Show African Americans as people-The Lincoln Motion Picture CompanyAMH2097 TEST 2-Oscar Micheaux1960s:-White (Hollywood) companies incorporate more African American actors-Gordon Parks – one of the best directors-Sidney Poitier –  change in roles for African Americans-1968: outlawed miscegenation…shown in film-1st to win best actor in category-2nd = Denzel Washington (2000s)-Equality starts to show more in films … behind the camera first (directors/producers)1970s:-Blaxploitation: African Americans take stereotypes and turn them into a joke-Prove how stupid stereotypes are; satire-Blackpower  about being proud to be African American-Celebrating African culture-Learn where your roots are from; discover background-Militant movement-Black Panthers-Roots (1977) = product of all this-1st time African Americans are shown as human beings; feelings.. love, fear, etc**New Stereotypes Link to Old Ones**1- “Deviant, Radical, Righteous”-Celebrate violent/savage side-Blackpower; Malcolm X2- “Drug lords, Crack Victims, Evil” -Evil = blackness-Shows African Americans somehow involved with drug culture3- “Welfare Queen and/or Gold-digger”-Fat, living off the government (white man)-Goes after someone for $$$  monetary gains4- “Sapphire” – “Angry, independent black woman” -African American woman… power/independence = angry-Dual-sex principle  West African women with powerImmigration from Ireland-Irish: black blood, black bones, black flesh… EvilQuick History of Irish/English Relations: Problems with England-1169: Norman Invasion of Ireland-Henry VIII (8th) “Re-conquest” of Ireland, 1536-Lose culture and religion-Outlaws Catholicism-Forced the Irish to become English (left military force in Ireland)James I and the Plantation System:-“Plantation of Ulster” – series of Plantations-Starts taking land away from Irish (militarily; mercenary Scots)-Ulster Scots… paid by James I to takeover land (then the land is theirs)-Take over nearly all the land in IrelandAMH2097 TEST 2-Lambs  wool-Need more land/less workers  no jobs-Tenant farmers = “Irish Slavery”-Forced to work on land that used to be theirs-Sharecropping … cycle of poverty = debt1600: Irish own 80% land Ł 1778: English own 95% -1607: Penal Laws – what the Irish can/can’t do in their own country-No Catholicism-No education-Population/economics-Overpopulation: when a country cannot support its people-Population of 8 million-Rural population-Most from farms; city = jobs… no city to go to-High illiteracy rate-Most that immigrate sign names on manifest, sign name as “X”-In sum… Irish were a Permanent UnderclassImmigration from Ireland1- Ulster Scots: First “Irish” to come to the New World-Maintain control over Ireland; take land, paid to be in armyWhy did they leave?-Problems w/England-Penal Laws on the Scots (different than Irish Penal Laws)-Political rights taken away from them-“Gone Native”  treating the Irish better than the English wouldDid they have money? Yes-Come over as family groupsWave: Formative 1765-1775-Ulster Scots or Scots-Irish-Location: “Backcountry”-Appalachian Mountains – Western Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina area-Where the English do not want to go-Numbers: 250,000Scots-Irish Stereotypes – Set Stereotypes for Catholic Irish 1 -Violence (only pre-conceived stereotype)-Family – Clan System-Use family for protection-Anyone related by blood-Live very close to each other (same village, castle, etc)-War – Hated English-Used by Americans when needed  get rid of the English (1/3)2- Poor, Immoral, Uneducated-Living conditions-Wooden houses (not brick… English), no shoe-May have to leave house… used to moving-Don’t put money into housing-No permanent Church-“Circuit riders”… preachers only come once a year-Parents teach you what you need to know to survive (in Backcountry) 3- Drunks: “A person who drinks alcohol”AMH2097 TEST 2-English are a culture of restraint; don’t drink in public – (men only.. wine/beer)-Scots enjoy their alcohol… Whisky-No problem drinking everyday; a lot on celebrations-No problem drinking in public; women and kids can drink-Bring culture with them-Come to a society that believes the complete opposite But not “Irish”-Religion – Presbyterian (not Catholic – Protestant)-One of the first to become included in “White”-Move up on the hierarchy when new people come (that are more different)Immigration From Ireland continued … 2- The Catholic Irish – 1845-1921Why did they leave Ireland?-Problems with England-Could not afford it $$$-Need catastrophe to leave…“The Great Famine” or Potato Famine (1845-1852)-Potato Blight 1840s;


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