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FSU SOP 3004 - Study Guide

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Ruken AymazPrejudice learning objectives:1. What are the ABC’s of social psychology? What are their corresponding terms in the prejudice literature, and what do those terms mean? a. Prejudice, discrimination, and stereotypes are the ABCs of intergroup relationships.b. Prejudice – negative attitude or feeling toward an individual based solely on his or her membership in a particular groupc. Racism – prejudiced attitudes toward a particular raced. Aversive racism – Simultaneously holding egalitarian values and negative feelings toward minoritiese. Discrimination – unequal treatment of different people based on the groups or categories to which they belongf. Stereotypes – beliefs that associate groups of people with certain traitsg. Affective component – Prejudiceh. Behavioral component – Discriminationi. Cognitive component - Stereotyping2. Is racial prejudice disappearing? Why or why not? What form is prejudice taking in today’s society? Does this also apply to gender prejudice?a. Racial prejudice is not disappearing although progress has been made in the United States. Just becoming more difficult to understand. b. Today: aversive racism: simultaneously holding egalitarian values and negative feelingsc. Toward minoritiesd. Also applies to gender prejudicee. Racism today is more subtle than in the past, and often takes the form of what is called aversive racism (altering positive and negative responses to black people)f. Most people claim not to be prejudice3. What are the differences between implicit and explicit prejudice? How easy is it to alter or change each of these types of prejudices? What does each of these predict?a. Implicit prejudice – unconscious level (spontaneous)b. Explicit prejudice – conscious level c. Implicit prejudice (automatic)- gut responses that are biased and uncontrolled (standing further apart from a group you are biased against)d. Explicit prejudice (conscious)- voiced attitudes against a group can be overt (traditional)and covert/subtle (modern)e. Both can be changed; easier to change explicit 4. Can implicit attitudes affect explicit attitudes? Can explicit attitudes affect implicit attitudes? a. Implicit attitudes can affect explicit attitudes; where a prime changes what is automatically activated in a person’s mind (changing implicit attitudes), which leads to later change in explicit attitudes.b. Explicit attitudes can affect implicit attitudes; situations where a factor causes a change in how we think about a group, and lead us to a desire to construct new associations in our mind.c. They won’t always affect each other.5. Explain how the following social sources influence prejudice: social inequalities, authoritarian personality, religion, conformity, and institutions.a. Social inequalities: Arabs and Muslims are thought of negatively; people who are overweight; homosexuals  unequal opportunities which is discriminationRuken Aymazb. Authoritarian personality: rigid adherence to norms, generalized hostility, and intolerance for different groups (ex: domineering parents). c. Religion: tells us what to believe; shows you one image of God and your people, not others, not presenting others is a form of prejudice.d. Conformity: makes us go along with what the crowd does and believes. Matching attitudes and beliefs with others to fit in, this is how we stereotypee. Institutions: social institutions (school, government and the media) can reinforce prejudice beliefs. Social institutions can reinforce biased beliefsf. Neutral structural cue – like having same amount of bathroom for men and women in a buildingg. Threatening structural cues – like having unequal amounts of bathrooms for men and women in a building6. How do diversity programs affect discrimination? Why does this happen? a. Diversity programs create an illusion of fairness, whereby people perceive a minority member as treated fairly if there is a diversity program, regardless of the actions againstthat person.b. This happens to reduce likelihood to perceive an action by the company as discrimination. Increases support for the status quo and negative attitudes toward a person claiming to be discriminated against. 7. How does frustration influence prejudice? Where can this frustration stem from?a. Competition can increase frustration which then increases prejudice and conflict between groups b. Frustration adds to prejudice and can stem from feelings of unfairnessc. Frustration stems from aggression and people take out their frustrations out on others, especially those who they already have negative feelings towards8. How does our social identity influence our prejudice? What is the main difference between outgroup and ingroup members? Do we judge outgroup members differently than ingroup members? If so, how? a. Our social identity influences prejudice because it relates to how we identify ourselves in relation to others according to what we have in commonb. Outgroup members: (them) people who belong to a different group or category than wedoc. Ingroup members: (us) people who belong to the same group or category as we dod. Outgroup homogeneity bias = the assumptions that outgroup members are more similarto one another than ingroup members are to one another “They all look alike to me”e. Outgroup is seen as all the same..judged as inferiorf. Ingroup people believe they're different and superiorOutgroup- people who belong to a different group or category than we doIngroup- people who belong to the same group or category as we dg. We treat those who are similar to us better than those outside our grouph. Angry outgroup members easier to identify than angry ingroup members9. What is internal motivation to respond without prejudice (IMS)? What is external motivation to respond without prejudice (EMS)? What are the differences between these two constructs? How can motivations to avoid prejudice influence actual prejudiced responses? How can one increase internal motivation to respond without prejudice? a. Internal Motivation to Respond Without Prejudice – Strong inner belief that prejudice is wrong. Actively work to reduce ANY form of prejudice (detectable and nondetectable)Ruken Aymazb. External Motivation to Respond Without Prejudice – Socially unwise to express opinions that others will regard as socially undesirable or politically incorrect. Actively work to reduce DETECTABLE prejudice. Try to hide their prejudice in public to avoid social disapproval.


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