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FSU SOP 3004 - Study Guide

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Study Points- EmotionsAS ALWAYS, BE ABLE TO APPLY ALL OF THESE CONCEPTS TO YOUR LIFE!1. What are the differences between emotion, affect, and mood?o Emotion- a specific (conscious) evaluative reaction to some point  I am afraid of alligators o Mood- general disposition or state  I’m in a bad moodo Affect- valence of evaluation toward an event  I have a negative affective response to alligators 2. How does affect motivate behavior and why does it do this?o Spikes in physiological arousal o people learn to avoid risky eventso It's a way to control your emotions 3. Are affective responses automatic or controlled and what are the implications of this? Areaffective responses weak or strong?o They are automatic if you are feeling sad you cannot just decide to be happy gain.o They are strong responses 4. How does affect contribute to learning and decision making? How does the Iowa Gambling Task study demonstrate this?o Control participants learn to avoid risky deck Felt twinges of affect o Brain damaged never learned to avoid  Don't learn to anticipate loss (punishment) 5. What were the different theories of emotion discussed in class? How do each of them explain how we reach our emotions? Which is the currently accepted theory and why?o James-Lange Theory of Emotion  Stimulus -> Physiological arousal -> Emotion NOT ACCEPTED o Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion  Stimulus -> Physiological arousal  Stimulus -> emotion NOT ACCEPTED o Schacter-Singer Theory of Emotion THIS THEORY IS ACCEPTED 6. What is misattribution of arousal and what were the methods and findings of the study examples we discussed in class?o Sometimes we mistakenly label our experiences based on external factors. o White et al. (1981) Men ran in place for 15 seconds vs. 120 seconds  Saw a video of an attractive woman or unattractive woman they expected to meet How attracted to the woman were they? 7. What is the domain specificity theory of emotions?o Effect of emotion is dependent upon specific emotion o Emotion serves to motivate behavior most of the time 8. What are the specific functions of specific emotions discussed in class?o Disgust- avoid disease o Sadness- seek social supporto Sexual arousal- find a romantic partner o Love- maintain relationship 9. What were the methods and findings of the study on attention and love?o Maner, Rouby, and Gonzaga (2008)  Think about a time you were happy vs. in love PhysiologicalArousalEmotionStimulusCognitiveApprais How do we direct out attention? 10. How do we know that emotional expressions are universal and automatic?o Communication for survival o Expressions are functional 11. What factors affect how we perceive emotions? What factors affect how we express emotions?o Expectationso Stereotypes o Our own Emotional States 12. What are the gender differences in emotion, if there are any?o Women are quicker and better able at identifying other’s emotionsStudy Points- Attitudes and Behavior (Chapter 7) AS ALWAYS, BE ABLE TO APPLY ALL OF THESE CONCEPTS TO YOUR LIFE!1. What are attitudes? How are they different from beliefs?o Attitude: a favorable, unfavorable, indifferent, or ambivalent evaluative reaction toward something or someone  I like johnny depp o Different for Belief:  His name is johnny 2. What were the sources of attitudes covered in class? How does each source affect attitudeformation?o Affect- feelings influence attitudes o Cognition- based on people’s beliefs about the properties of an attitude object  People like information that is easier to process o Behavior- based on observations of how one behaves toward an attitude object  Self perception theory: people don't know how they feel until they see how they behave  Classical Conditioning o Others: Operant Conditioning: develop a positive attitude toward behaviors that are rewarded  Social learning: learn attitudes through observation 3. What is the mere exposure effect and what were the methods and findings of the study onit that we discussed in class?4. What is attitude polarization? Know the studies (methods and results) from class about this concept. o Attitude polarization: attitudes become more extreme by convincing ourselves they are right o LaPierce (1934)  Traveled with Asian couple Expected anti-Asian attitudes would produce discrimination, yet the vast majority of hotels allowed them to stay Wrote hotels months later asking if they would accommodate Asians and 90% of them said “no” o Wicker (1969) –meta-analysis 5. When do attitudes affect behavior? Know the studies that demonstrate that attitudes affectbehaviors. o Attitude is strong  Vested interest Accessible o Measured at same level of specificityo Other influences on behavior minimized o Regan & Fazio (1977) Housing crisis at Cornell Some students in permanent housing vs. some in temporary housing Both groups had neg. attitudes toward housing crisiso Fazio & Williams (1986) 1984 election (Reagan vs. Mondale) Measured how quickly people rated candidates 4 months later – who did you vote for?  Quicker responses = more accessible6. What are implicit and explicit attitudes and how do they differ? Is it possible to have opposing implicit and explicit attitudes?o Explicit attitudes- Controlled and Conscious evaluative responses o Implicit attitudes- automatic and nonconscious evaluative responses 7. How does social desirability affect our ability to measure attitudes?8. What are some ways that we discussed in class that researchers measure attitude driven behaviors “under the radar”?9. What is the Implicit Association Test and how does it work?o Which task was easier? Attitudes measured by- Reaction time - Accuracy 10. When are implicit vs. explicit attitudes formed?11. What is cognitive dissonance and what are the effects of it?o Cognitive Dissonance: an unpleasant psychological state o What do we change: behavior or attitude  Its hard to take back behavior  Its easier to change attitudes 12. How does insufficient justification affect cognitive dissonance effects and what was the study that demonstrated these effects (know methods and results)?o Festinger and Carlsmith (1959)  P’s turn knobs for an hour  Paid $1 or $20 to tell next person that study is interesting (or no lie- control group) Measured participants attitude toward knob turning o Attitudes change is more lily if there is insufficient justification for the


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