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FSU SOP 3004 - Chapter 4

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Chapter 4� Define self-presentation.=the process through which we try to control the impression people form of usAka-impression management� List and discuss the major reasons why people self-present.1. To obtain desirable resources from others-strategically gain control over one’s life2. A way of constructing a self-image-managing the impression others have of us/ manage the impressions we have of ourselves� Explain public self-consciousness.=the tendency to have a chronic awareness of oneself as being in the public eye-the degree to which one believes others pay attention to them� Describe when people are concerned with strategic self-presentation1. When observes can influence whether or not we obtain our goals2. When these goals are important to us3. When we think observers have impressions different from the ones we want to project� Discuss the difference between high and low self-monitoring in a social situation.1. High-adept at assessing what others want and tailoring behavior to meet those demands2. Low-acting without a goal of portraying a certain image� Outline the four ingratiation strategies people use to attempt to get others to like them.1. Expressing Liking for Others-complimenting other can be effective for getting others to like us2. Creating Similarity-when we make ourselves like others, they tend to like us more3. Making ourselves physically attractive-physically attractive people are more desirable as partners, jobs, raises4. Projecting Modesty-people who downplay their success are usually more well liked than people who boast of them� Describe how you can detect a false smile.-less symmetrical, jerkier muscle movements, held longer than natural, no eye involvement (crinkling around the eyes)� Explain the cultural differences found in the social acceptability of boastfulness.-immodesty is tolerated more by African Americans than by European Americans-Asian Americans are more modest than European Americans and often find European Americans too boastful� Describe gender differences with regard to likeability.Women are expected to be more concerned with being liked and proper-women still act this way even though we are not typically taught this anymore-women smile more than men, use ingratiation tactics more and are more concerned with physical attractiveness� Describe under what circumstances people especially want to be seen as likable.1. Friendship Settings-we present ourselves more modestly to friends than to strangers-more likely to smile, compliment, make ourselves more attractive etc…when trying to make friends rather than with an established friend2. Interacting with People in Powerful Positions-People in power are less focused on getting others to like them-but still want to be liked-People trying to ingratiate with the power-holder do try to appear more likeable� Outline the four strategies people use to appear competent to others.1. Staging Performances=creating opportunities to demonstrate our competence in public2. Claiming Competence=verbal declarations of competence3. Using the Trappings of Competence=surrounding oneself with the props and habits usually associated with competence4. Making Excuses, Claiming Obstacles=making excuses before or after competence is made unclear� Define self-handicapping. Why do people self-handicap? How do people self-handicap?How does self-esteem influence the likelihood of self-handicapping?=the behavior of withdrawing effort or creating obstacles to one’s future successWhy-may reduce the likelihood that people will attribute our failures to incompetence and attribute our success to some outstanding abilityHow-drugs, not practicing, alcohol, distractions, choosing unattainable goals, giving someone else an advantageSelf-Esteem-those with lower self-esteem are more likely to self-handicap� Describe under what settings people wish to appear competent.1. Failure or fear of failure2. Pressure3. Competition4. Self-promotional situations� Outline the four strategies people use to convey status and power to others.1. Displaying the Artifacts of Status and Power-degrees, nice décor, clean atmosphere-fancy cars, nice clothes, elaborate trips2. Conspicuous Consumption-giving things away and wasting money just because you can-showing off your ability to spend money3. Personal Associations-associate yourself with success and people who are successful-cut off any association with failure4. Status and Power in Nonverbal Expressions-body language-confidence in walking, talking, dominance behaviorChapter 5� Explain where attitudes come from via classical conditioning, operantconditioning, observational learning, and heredity.1. Classical-associating positive or negative feelings with someone/something2. Operant-punishment/reward3. Observational-learning by observing others4. Heredity-unlearned genetic component to many attitudes� Describe attitude strength in terms of commitment and embeddedness.1. Committed=more certain that it is correct2. Embedded=connected to additional features of the person (values, identity)� Outline the factors that influence the likelihood of attitude-behavior consistency.1. Knowledge-the more you know about something, the more you willyour attitudes and actions will be consistent with one another2. Personal Relevance-people are much more likely to act on their beliefs if the belief directly affects them3. Attitude Accessibility-the attitude that is most likely to spring to mind� Describe Fishbein and Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior.=a theory stating that the best predictor of a behavior is one’s behavioral intention, which is influenced by one’s attitude toward the specific behavior, the subjective norms regarding the behavior and one’s perceived control over the behavior� Offer a definition of persuasion.=change in a private attitude or belief as a result of receiving a message� Explain why after-only designs are preferred by scientists who study persuasion.-take no “before” data before you administer the stimulus. Apply the stimulus to one group, then measure the “after” data and compare to a group that did not receive the stimulus-the “before” data could sensitize a group to the issue causing altered results� Explain how inoculation and counterarguments are used to defeat persuasivemessages.1. Counterargument=an argument that challenges and opposes other arguments-most effective way for subjects to avoid persuasion2. Inoculation=a


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