New version page

FSU SOP 3004 - Social Cognition

Documents in this Course
CHAPTER 1

CHAPTER 1

13 pages

Chapter 4

Chapter 4

14 pages

Notes

Notes

52 pages

Chapter 1

Chapter 1

10 pages

Chapter 7

Chapter 7

10 pages

Notes

Notes

9 pages

Load more
Upgrade to remove ads

This preview shows page 1-2-3-4-5 out of 15 pages.

Save
View Full Document
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 15 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 15 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 15 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 15 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 15 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience

Upgrade to remove ads
Unformatted text preview:

2/7/12Social Cognition The processes by which people think about and make sense of their social environmentTradition of Humans as rational “Reasons is man’s basic means of survival.” – Ayn Rando Advancements in science, technologyo Behavioral EconomicsWe are not rational, unbiased information consumers Reasons is costly (in cognitive terms) We have limited cognitive resources to…o Solve problemso Direct attention and behavior People are cognitive miserso Conserve cognitive resources as much as possibleConserving mental resources Heuristics - mental shortcutso Efficient strategy for solving problems or answering questionso Provides a “good enough” answer most of the timeo We aren’t always pointed to the optimal optiono Prone to certain types of errors Biases - use certain types of informationo Attend to particular kinds of informationo Too effortful to try to process all information“We respond not to reality as it is but to reality as we construe it”Heuristics Representativeness Availability Anchoring and Adjustment Price HeuristicRepresentative Heuristic Base decision on what seems righto What represents the typical caseo Is the man who loves wine, classical music, and playing chess is he a truck driver or a college professor? (most people would believe the description to be a college professor)o StereotypesAvailability Heuristic If something is easy to think of, we assume that it is more common and more likely to happeno K as the 1st or 3rd letter, we think that there are more with k as the 1st letter because it is easier to think of those—they are more available… therefore we think there are more words that begin with k, even though that is falseo Which death is more possible: Death by plane parts or shark attack? Most people believe sharks are more common when death by plane parts is 30 times more likely… we hear about sharks a lot more often Can influence how we see ourselveso Geography test where one group was given state capitals and one was given African countries capitals…. The ones who took the state capitals test answered that they were good at geography whereas those with the African test answered they were not good Ease of information influenceso How common events are (shark vs. plane)o Howe we think of ourselves (geography test)Anchoring & Adjustment Heuristic Failing to sufficiently adjust estimates away from an initial start value or “anchor”o Am I older or younger than 50? 50 is the anchor, we can not usually get away from that anchor. More or less than 10 jellybeans in this jar? 10 is the anchor, and even if it is a lot more than 10 your guess would still typically be smaller because of the anchoro 1x2x3x4x5x6x7x8 vs 8x7x6x5x4x3x2x1 asking participants to guess how much it is…. People in the first guess 512 and the people in the second guess 2,250 people who begin with 8 have a higher anchor andpeople who start with one have a lower anchor. But the answer is actually 40,320, both groups get anchored way lower than realisticPrice Heuristic If it costs more, it’s bettero We assume that more expensive items are of higher qualityo Especially when we don’t know much about the product2/12/13Major form of bias… Imagine while driving to school, someone cuts you off and takes your parkingspoto You explain their actions with things like “inconsiderate, impatient, jerk”o This is an attribution or explanation for the behaviorAttribution and Mental shortcuts Another way to save cognitive energy Attribution: trying to explain people’s behavioro Dispositional (internal) attribution : explain a behavior in terms of a person’s dispositiono Situational (external) attribution : explain a behavior as influenced by the situationActor/Observer Bias People tend to make:o Situation attributions for their own behavior Not their personality, not stableo Dispositional attributions for others’ behavior Their personality, stable Easier to see behavior than causesWhen explaining for behavior of others… Fundamental attribution error: people overestimate role of disposition (personality) ; underestimate situational influences (situation)Castro Experiment Participants heard pro-castro essayo Then discovered author was forced to write in favor of castro or freelychose it  Participants still thought that the author was pro-castro, even when they knew the essay writer had no choice!Cultural differences Research suggest phenomenon isn’t fundamental Effects are greatest in individualistic cultureso Asians less likely to use than westernersBiased Attention We tend to over-emphasize personality’s influence on the behavior of othersConfirmation Bias The tendency to notice and search for information that confirms one’s beliefsand to ignore information that disconfirms one’s beliefs People attend to information that confirms their predictionso Ignore and forget information that disconfirms expectations Expectations don’t just influence what we attend to or remember, it also influences how we interact with others and behave Psychologists told teachers that some students were gifted and about to exceland some students were challenged and not expected to do well. In reality, there was no difference between the two groupso Teachers’ behaved towards the students in way that led them to confirm expectations; students reacted to teachers’ behavior Self-fulfilling prophecy: o Behave towards others in ways that leads them to confirm our expectationsSo what are we good at?Our minds are great for solving social problems. The Wason Selection Test is much, much easier when framed in terms of a social contract The mind was developed to understand social environmentso Understand social rules People are designed to survive and thrive in social environmentsError Management Theory Even our errors are adaptive when assessed in a social context People avoid the more costly error Type 1 error: no fire, but the smoke alarm goes off Type 2 error: fire, but the smoke alarm does not go offType I and Type II Error Type 1: False positive. “Play it safe”o Think you hear a snake, stop runningo Error cost= end run, look foolish Type II: False negative “Side with skepticism”o Keep runningo Error cost = snake bite2/14/13 <3Error Management Theory Used to explain why men quickly (and often erroneously) infer sexual


View Full Document
Download Social Cognition
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Social Cognition and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Social Cognition 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?