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FSU SOP 3004 - Exam 4 Study Guide

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Exam 4 Study Guide Ch.13• Stereotype: Generalized cognition about members of a group o New Yorkers are rude and always in a hurry • Prejudice: a generalized attitude toward members of a group o Dislike members of Al Qaeda • Discrimination: Behaviors directed toward people on the basis of their group membership o Denying someone a job because on their race or gender• Institutionalizrd discrimination: informal hiring practices, social interaction • Modern discrimination: more subtle but often just as damaging• 6 steps reducing prejudice o mutual interdependence o a common goal o equal status o informal, interpersonal contact o multiple contacts o social norms of equality • Expierments Stereotypes o Women considered less competent and successful the men ( Felman-summer) Women downplay ability in traditionally male domains  Mothers who held gender stereodypical beliefs believed that their daighters had low math ability • Daughters believed they had low math ability o Stome, Perry & Darley  Participants listened to part of a basketball game and were told to focus on a particular playerExam 4 Study Guide  Half of the particpants saw a photo of a black man and half saw a photo of a white man  Students who thought the player was black rated him as more althletic and playing a better game • Automatic processing--- stereotypes , controlled processing--- agree or ignore automatic processing, effortful • Illusory correlation--- the tendency to see relationships, or correlations, between events that are actually unrelated• Blaming the victim--- the tendency to blame individuals for their victimization, typically motivated by a desire to see the world as a fair place. • Expierment Prejudice o Clark & Clark  Black children choose to play with white dolls (self esteem)o Goldberg Women rated a scholarly article they thought was written by man more favorably o Jigsaw classroom- each student is given an essential task to complete in group project  This intervention takes advantage of each of the six principles of effective group contact Ch.10 • Attraction: anything that draws two or more people together, making them want to be together and possibly to form a lasting relationship • 5 causes of attractiono propinquity – geographical nearness friends we make are influenced by where we: live, work, sit in classo physical attractiveness social comparison: what is attractive depends on our comparison standardExam 4 Study Guide o similarity o social exchange and equity  social exchange theory: the idea that peoples feelings about a relationship depend on…• their perceptions of the rewards and cost of the relationship• the kind of relationship they deserve • their chances for having a better relationship with someone else  investment model: theory that people’s commitment to a relationship depends on• their satisfaction with the relationship, reards, cost, comparison level for alernatives.  Equity theory: the idea that people are happiest with relationshipds in which the rewards and costs expiereneced and the contributions made by both parties are roughly equalo liking those who like us • Passionate love: strong feelings of longing, desire, excitement towards a person • Companionate love: high levels of mutual understanding and caringo Less emotional o Maintain relationships• Types of attachmento Anxious/ambivalent: want to be as close as possible, complete merger with othero Avoidant: uncomfortable getting close, maintain distanceo Secure attachment: confortable balance • Ducks 4 stages of breaking up o Intrapersonalo Dyadic o SocialExam 4 Study Guide o Intrapersonal SPA 2 • Stresso Selye---Body’s physiological response to threatening events o Holmes & Rahe—degree to which people have to change and readjust their lives in response to an external evento Lazarus & Folkman—negative feelings and beliefs that occur whenever people feel unable to cop with demands from their environment • Top 5 stressors for college student o Concern over meeting high standardso Being lonely o Fear of wasting time o Troubling thoughts about the futureo Not getting enough sleep • Types of stressors o Cataclysmic events o major life events o everyday hassles • Perceived control: belief that we can influence our environment in ways that determine whether we experience positive or negative outcomes• Internal locus of control: believe that things happen because we control them • External locus of control: believe that good and bad outcomes are out of our control SPA 3 • Eyewitness testimony--- eyewitness identifications are freq inaccurateExam 4 Study Guide • Stress increased memory for the event itself but decreases memory for what preceded and followed the incident• The 3 basic processes of acquisition, storage, and retrieval influence eyewitness memory, just they influence all memory• Acquisition—process by which people notice and pay attention to information in the environment • Weapon focus effecto People tend to keep their eye on weapons because of their danger and novelty o This distracts their attention from the robbers • Own race bias o People are more accurate in identifying members of their own raceo Own race decreases with experience with other groups  Blacks are more accurate in identifying whites than vice versa• Reconstructive memory--- process whereby memories of an event become distorted by info encountered after the event occurred • 3 hypotheses for how post event info affects memoryo over writing o forgetting o source monitoring • the accuracy of a polygraph test is about 86%• recovered memories—recollections of a past event that had been forgotten or repressed • false memory syndrome—remember a past traumatic experience that is objectively false but nevertheless accepted as true. • False confessions o Leading questions o False claimso False promisesExam 4 Study Guide o Long interrogations • Jury selection o The voir dire process allows judges and lawyers to question prospective jurorso Preemptory challenges allow attorneys to eliminate jurors for a number of reasons  Hastie and Pennington’s story model of jury deicision making- jurors use the evidence presented in trials to create stories about the events in question • Deterrence theory- hypothesis that the threat of legal punishment causes people to refrain from criminal activity if punishment is:o Perceived as


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