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FSU SOP 3004 - Social Psychology Exam 4

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Social Psychology Exam 4Chapter 101.) What is the definition of aggression? Aggression is behavior intended to injure anothero Aggression is behaviora. Not same as anger. Possible to be angry but no aggressive. Possible to be aggressive without anger. o The behavior is intended. a. if harm occurs and it is not intentional, it is not aggressive. o The behavior is aimed at hurting another persona. Aggressiveness vs assertivenessb. Malicious aggression vs playful aggression.  Assertiveness is behavior intended to express dominance or confidence 2. ) Know and define the two major forms of aggression. • Indirect VS Directo Indirect aggression is behavior intended to hurt someone without face-to-face confrontationa. EX. Malicious Gossipo Direct aggression is behavior intended to hurt someone to his or her facea. Physical (striking, kicking) or Verbal (insult, threatening) • Emotional VS Instrumental (Reactive VS Proactive)o Emotional aggression is hurtful behavior that stems from angry feelings that get out of control. a. EX. Throwing a chair at a co-worker in a blind rage. o Instrumental aggression is hurting another to accomplish some other goala. EX. Tripping the star player from an opposing team. o Not always clear because sometimes behaviors can be both emotional and instrumental. 3. ) Are there gender differences in aggression? If so, what differs?• Gender differenceso Women tend to use more indirect aggressiono Men tend to use more direct aggressiono However, women are more likely to physically attack their romantic partners.Social Psychology Exam 4o Overall, most studies show no gender differences in aggressiono High levels of testosterone are related to dominance and aggressiveness Adolescent boys Violent animals Men and women with criminal records• Goals of aggressiono Lorenz, animal instinct Displacement is an indirect expression of an aggressive impulse away from the person or animal that elicited it Catharsis is a discharge of aggressive impulses  It appears, however, that acting aggressively tends to increase later violent behavioro Adaptive goals A drive towards aggressiveness could only evolve if it increased the chances of survival or reproduction A drive toward “blind aggression: would be maladaptive Aggression is thus unlikely to be a goal in itself, but should instead be linked to particular goals in particular situationso Functional Aggressive impulses are natural. Strategy for survival and reproduction.  Used for acquiring material resources, status, even mates People fail to control them4. ) Define three hostile cognitive biases. How do they lead to increased aggression?• Hostile cognitive bias are inferences and expectation about otherso Hostile attribution bias is the view of ambiguous acts as aggressivea. EX. If someone bumps into you at a bar, that person is aggressive and insulting, when it may have just been an innocent accident.o Hostile perception bias is perceived social interactions as being aggressiveSocial Psychology Exam 4a. Ex. if two people are arguing, one with this bias will assume it will result in a violent fighto Hostile expectation bias is to expect others to react aggressivelya. EX. Thus if YOU bump into someone in a bar, you’ll assume that THEY will respond by fighting with you.o People with these biases tend to be more aggressive. 5.) What is the frustration-aggression hypothesis? • Frustration- aggression hypothesis is the theory that aggression is an automatic response to any blocking of goal-directed behavioro When someone is acting aggressive, you can assume the person was previously frustrateda. EX. Boss begins the day by yelling at you, you assume something frustrated him on way to work. o When someone is frustrated, some act of aggression will followa. EX. You get a flat tire that makes you an hour late for work, you’ll need to take it out on someone. Problems- Some aggressive acts don’t seem to follow any particular frustration and frustration does not always lead to aggression. o Reformed frustrated- aggression hypothesis is the theory that any unpleasant stimulation will lead to emotional aggression to the extent that it generates unpleasant feelings• Social information processing by childreno Non-defensive  Less likely to notice a bump from another child Interpret as an accidentSocial Psychology Exam 4 Consider peaceful solution Likely to rule out as an aggressive response More skilled at carrying out peaceful optionso Defensive- opposite of Non-defensive• Belief in a dangerous worldo People who believe the world is full of dangerous people tend to perceive anger in neutral faces and exhibit more xenophobia Xenophobia is fear and distrust of foreignerso There are many dangerous people in our society who will attack someone out of pure meanness6.) Is an unpleasant mood required for aggressive behavior? Why or why not?o No, an unpleasant mood is a factor that could lead to it but it is not required. o Unpleasant feelings may or may not lead to overtly aggressive behaviors, depending on factors in the person or situation. o Plenty of aggressive behaviors occur when people are “cold.” 7.) What is excitation transfer? Give an example (discussed in class) of excitation transfer.• Excitation-transfer theory is the theory that anger is physiologically similar to other emotional states and that any form of emotional arousal can enhance aggressive responseso The emotional reaction of anger produces the same symptomso This arousal can be emotional arousal or even just physical arousal from something like exerciseo If aroused and then annoyed, or vice versa, the residual arousal may be mistaken for anger.8.) What is the weapons effect? Describe the Berkowitz and Page (1967) experiment.• Weapons effect is the tendency for weapons to enhance aggressive thoughts, feelings, or actionso Berkowitz and LePage’s experiment i. Angry participants were seated at desk and either guns or sports equipment was present. Participants were told to ignore the items and some had to shock their partners. Those sitting in the presence of guns shocked their partner more9.) Be able to list four unpleasant experiences that can lead to increased aggression.• Unpleasant situationso When feeling pain you are more aggressivea. For example, you’ll note that an injured animal is likely to strike out aggressively, even if you’re trying to help ito Sweltering heat,


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