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FSU SOP 3004 - Social Psychology Exam 3

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Social Psychology Exam 3Chapter 7• A friend is someone with whom we have an affectionate relationship. Features include o Participating as equalso Enjoy each other’s companyo Trust one anothero Help each othero Act themselveso Share similar interests and values, interactions will be smoother and more pleasant because of shared attitudes.• Studying intimate relationshipso Experience sampling method is an observational technique in which subjects fill out frequent descriptions of who they are with and what is going on.o Have subjects fill out a questionnaire after every meaningful social interaction, this method is called the Rochester Interaction Record.o By having people record their own interactions right after they occur, researchers gain several advantages: gain information about real, ongoing behavior, without an observer interfering.• Friendships are formed when you are placed in close proximity with another person or people that you see constantly, according to Segal’s study.o Proximity-attraction principle is that we have a tendency to become friends with those who live and work nearby.o In dorms, people are all friends with people next to the stairs because they are seen all the time, this is mere exposure effect, and we feel more positively toward someone we have seen frequently.o Social capital is an asset that can be drawn from one’s network or personal relationships.o Technological advances have increased the distance between people, others can help us maintain contact with others by social networking sites, cell-phone texting, and internet connections…• Balance theoryo We want to agree with people we like, and disagree with people we dislike.o We associate positive feelings and dislike those with whom we associate negative feelings: reinforcement-affect model.o When the cognitive system is out of balance there is uncomfortable tension, to remove this tension, we will have to change something.• Goals of affiliation and friendshipo Like those who make us feel good Reinforcement-affect model  Domain-general model attempts to explain a wide range of different behaviors according to a simple rule, “do it if it feels good.”o Liking those who offer us a good deal, or exchanging material benefits Social exchange presumes that affiliation and friendship are motivated by a simple and general goal; it is the trading of benefits within relationships.• Communal sharing is when all group members share resources as needed and depend on one another for mutual care. Example: tight-knit family• Authority ranking is when a higher-ranking individual is entitled to loyalty, respect…; lower-ranking are entitles to protection, advice, and leadership. Example: Military squad• Equality matching is when no one gets more than others do, share equal, take turns, and reciprocate benefits. Example: children playing• Market pricing is when individuals trade according to rational rules of self-interest,… seeking the best possible deal. Example: customer and shopkeeper Equity is a state of affairs win which one person’s benefits and costs from a relationship are proportional to the benefits and costs incurred by his or her partner.o Domain-specific social motivations, we aspire to very different goals in relationships. The domain-specific model presumes that the governing principles vary from one domain of behavior to another, such as friendship VS romance VS parent-child relationships.Social Psychology Exam 3• Social support is emotional, material, or informational assistance provided by other peopleo We often turn to others for support when we are under stress from impersonal dangers, mortality sailence, and social isolation.o Sometimes we turn people down because of reciprocity norms, feelings of obligation, and a threat t otheir status.o Healthy psychology studies behavioral and psychological factors that affect illness.• Getting informationo Other people can provide a wealth of facts helpful for solving problems.o When it comes to social realities, other people’s opinions are more or less all that matters.o Self-disclosure is the sharing of intimate information about oneself. Increases liking, after you get to know each other people like their partners more, feel more empathy, blame their partner less, and share credit for successes. Women are more likely to self-disclose.• Gaining statuso By association The desire to form friendships with high status individuals is especially strong in status-oriented cultures. People often try to break social connections that could reflect poorly on them. People bask in reflected glory Both sexes give more credit to relatives than to strangers. Women treat friends more like family, and men treat them more like strangers.o Men are more hierarchical, they emphasize social hierarchy in their relationships more than women do. o Explain why we desire to be friends with people who are powerful.o Describe when people are more likely to affiliate with others to gain status. When are they less likely to do so?• Types of relationshipso Exchange relationships Based on reciprocity and fairness, we expect something in return, we want balance. It is more frequent in broader society, casual/non-intimate relationships. Relationships in western society tends to be more freely chosen. Relationships in traditions cultures tend to be more permanent and continuous. Relationships in western society tends to be more individualistic.o Communal relationships Based on mutual love and concern, there is less of an expectation of repayment. It is more frequent in close intimate relationships. People are more likely to adopt a needs-based rule in communal relationships. Chapter 8• Features of love: Sternberg’s triangular model of loveo Passion is a factor on love scales composed of items tapping romantic attraction and sexual desire. Intimacy is a factor on love scales composed of items tapping feelings of close bonding with another. o Decision/ commitment is a factor on love scales composed of items tapping decision that one is in love with and committed to another.Social Psychology Exam 3• Factor analysis is a statistical technique for sorting test items or behaviors into conceptually similar groupings.o Passionate love is a state of intense longing for union with another.o Compassionate love is affection and tenderness felt for those whole lives are entwined with our own.o


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