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FSU SOP 3004 - EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE

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SOP3004 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDEEmotionsAttitudes and Behavior- Chapter 4Conformity and Obedience- Chapter 6Persuasion- Chapter 7Groups- Chapter 8Wednesday, 3-5 Exam 2Study Points- Emotions● What are the differences between emotion, affect, and mood?○ Emotion: a specific (conscious) evaluative reaction to some event■ EX: I am afraid of alligators (slow)○ Mood: general disposition or state■ EX: I’m in a good mood○ Affect: valence (positive or negative) of evaluation toward an event■ Spikes in psychological arousal● People with damage to prefrontal cortex- had no arousal in response to traumatic images● ^Also can’t make everyday decisions (EX: where do you want to eat? bc couldn’t make affect associations of what restaurants are good/bad and which one to eat at)■ EX: I have a negative affective response to alligators (fast)● How does affect motivate behavior and why does it do this?○ Affect motivates behavior because if you have a positive evaluation toward something, you are more likely to do it● Are affective responses automatic or controlled and what are the implications of this? Are affective responses weak or strong?● How does affect contribute to learning and decision making? How does the Iowa Gambling Task study demonstrate rthis?● What were the different theories of emotion discussed in class? How do each of them explain how we reach our emotions? Which is the currently accepted theory and why?○ James Lange theory of emotion (outdated)■ Stimulus → psychological arousal → emotion■ (see zombie) → (heart races) → (causes you to be afraid)■ Problems: physiological arousal applies to different emotions. If this model were to be accepted, each physiological arousal would create one emotional response.○ Cannon-Bard theory of emotion (outdated)→ physiological arousal■ Stimulus→ emotion○ Schacter-Singer theory of emotion (*currently accepted model by social psychologists*)■ physiological arousal and cognitive appraisal affect each other, which bothlead to emotion→ physiological arousal■ Stimulus ^ affect each other v → Emotion→ cognitive appraisal● What is misattribution of arousal and what were the methods and findings of the study examples we discussed in class?○ Misattributing arousal : your state of arousal causes you to misattribute (EX: why they go skydiving or other physiologically stimulating things on the bachelor- makes you like them more)■ White et. al 1981■ Men ran in place for 15 secs or 120 secs■ Watched a video of an attractive or unattractive women they were expected to meet, then asked how attractive were they● 120 sec. men were more attracted to the attractive women than the 15 sec● 120 men were less attracted to the unattractive women than the 15 sec● What is the domain specificity theory of emotions?○ Domain Specificity: effect of emotion is dependent upon specific emotion○ Emotion serves to motivate behavior (most of the time…)● What are the specific functions of specific emotions discussed in class?○ Disgust: avoid disease○ Sadness: seek social support○ Sexual arousal: find a romantic partner○ Love: maintain relationship● What were the methods and findings of the study on attention and love?○ Studied/tracked where eyes looked and how long people looked at certain images■ For individuals in love or happy, they spent the same amount of time looking at attractive people of the same sex, average opposite sex, and average same sex■ DIFFERENCE: individuals just happy (not in love) spent same time looking at attractive opposite sex. However, those in love spent a significant less amount of time looking at the attractive opposite sex● How do we know that emotional expressions are universal and automatic?○ We know that emotional expressions are universal and automatic because they arethe same across cultures■ Same face for disgust, anger, happy, etc. no matter where you go■ Expressions are functional, they’re there to motivate behavior (ex: disgust,anger, fear)● What factors affect how we perceive emotions? What factors affect how we express emotions?○ Factors that shape our perceptions■ Expectations and stereotypes■ Our own emotional states● Fear can influence our perceptions of anger in others■ Our own gender● Women are better/quicker at identifying other’s emotions● What are the gender differences in emotion, if there are any?○ Women are better/quicker at identifying other’s emotions, also differ in displayingemotionStudy Points- Attitudes and Behavior (4)● What are attitudes? How are they different from beliefs?○ Attitudes are favorable, unfavorable, indifferent, or ambivalent EVALUATIVE reactions toward something or someone■ EX: “I like Johnny Depp” is an attitude○ Attitudes are different from beliefs because beliefs aren’t evaluative■ EX: “His name is Johnny” is a belief● What were the sources of attitudes covered in class? How does each source affect attitude formation?○ Attitudes come from:■ Affect■ Cognition■ Behavior● What is the mere exposure effect and what were the methods and findings of the study on it that we discussed in class?○ The mere exposure effect is when favorability increases with greater exposure to an object■ Develop pleasant association with stimulus (stimulus must be neutral- can’t have any feelings toward the stimulus prior)● What is attitude polarization? Know the studies that demonstrate that attitudes affect behaviors○ Attitude polarization : attitudes become more extreme by convincing ourselves they are right■ EX: you read an article that is pro choice and you are pro choice, it strengthens your attitude/belief (bias)● When do attitudes affect behavior? Know the studies that demonstrate that attitudes affect behaviors.○ *ATTITUDES PREDICT OUR BEHAVIOR WHEN THESE OTHER INFLUENCES ON WHAT WE SAY AND DO ARE MINIMAL, WHEN THE ATTITUDE IS SPECIFIC TO THE BEHAVIOR, AND WHEN THE ATTITUDE IS POTENT*○ Attitudes affect behavior when…■ Attitude is strong● Vested interest● Accessible■ Measured at same level of specificity■ Other influences on behavior minimized○ Study: LaPierce■ Traveled with an Asian couple■ Expected anti-Asian attitudes would produce discrimination, yet the vast majority of hotels allowed them to stay■ Wrote hotels months later, asking if they would accommodate Asians■ 90% of hotels said no○ Study: Regan &


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