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UT PSY 301 - Personality

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Self

Self

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Memory

Memory

60 pages

Genetics

Genetics

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Self

Self

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Jeopardy

Jeopardy

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PERSONALITYHow has personality been studied?Psychodynamic theoryUnconscious forces influence behaviorTopographical model shows three levels of consciousnessSubconsciousPreconsciousConsciousEarly childhood experiences have a major impact on personalityPsychosexual stagesStages correspond to pursuit of specific libidinal urgesStructural model of personalityIdActs on impulses and desiresFollows the pleasure principleSuperegoInternalization of parental and societal standards of conduct--the conscienceEgoTries to satisfy id, superego, and outside demandsDefense mechanismsUnconscious mental strategies used to protect the mind from conflict and distressHumanistic approachesEmphasize personal experience and belief systemsSelf-actualization: people are motivated to fulfill their human potentialMaslow’s theory of motivationDesire to become self-actualized is the highest human goalRogers’ humanistic theoryPerson-centered approachHighlights importance of parental treatment in child’s personality developmentUnconditional positive regardAtmosphere of acceptance under which children develop most effectivelySeparate approval of behavior from approval of childType and trait approachesPersonality typesDiscrete categories based on global personality characteristicsImplicit personality theoriesThe tendency to assume that personality characteristics go togetherAllow people to predict others’ behavior in new situationsPredictions made on minimal evidenceThe trait approachStudy of personality by focusing on relatively stable behavioral dispositionsFactor analysisStatistical technique for studying responses to personality questionnairesGroups items with correlated responses to extract latent variables (=traits)Trait modelsEysenck’s hierarchical modelMultiple levels of organization:ResponsesHabitsTraitsSuperordinate traitsIntroversion-extraversionEmotional stabilityConstraint (earlier: “Psychoticism”)The Big Five trait modelView that there are five central personality traitsEach trait is composed of several lower order traitsLearning and cognition in personalityPersonal constructs (Kelly)People’s interpretations and expectations about their social worldConstructs influence behaviorsLocus of control (Rotter)People differ in beliefs about the effectiveness of their own actionsInternal locus of controlExternal locus of controlSelf-efficacy (Bandura)The extent to which people believe they can achieve specific goalsPeople develop expectancies through observational learningCAPS: Cognitive-Affective Personality System (Mischel)Responses determined byhow a person perceives a situationthe skills to deal with the situationexpected outcome of planned actionsHow is personality assessed and what does it predict?General approaches to personalityIdiographic approachesPerson-centeredFocus on individual livesHow characteristics are integrated in a unique personNomothetic approachesFocus on characteristics common to all peopleIndividual variation along trait dimensionsObjective and projective techniquesProjective measuresPersonality tests where a person interprets an ambiguous stimulusThematic Apperception Test (TAT)Rorschach (inkblot) testObjective measuresSelf-report questionnaires and observer ratings of behaviorPeople do make subjective judgments(Implicit/explicit)Consistency of personality traitsFriends tend to be better predictors of our behavior than we ourselves arePeople are inconsistent in behaviorSituationismThe theory that situations determine behavior more than traitsInteractionismThe theory that behavior is jointly determined by underlying dispositions and by situationsBehavior: interaction of personality and situationsPsych 301, 10/1/3PERSONALITYHow has personality been studied?Psychodynamic theoryUnconscious forces influence behaviorTopographical model shows three levels of consciousnessSubconsciousPreconsciousConsciousEarly childhood experiences have a major impact on personalityPsychosexual stagesStages correspond to pursuit of specific libidinal urgesStructural model of personalityIdActs on impulses and desiresFollows the pleasure principleSuperegoInternalization of parental and societal standards of conduct--the conscienceEgoTries to satisfy id, superego, and outside demandsDefense mechanismsUnconscious mental strategies used to protect the mind from conflict and distressHumanistic approachesEmphasize personal experience and belief systemsSelf-actualization: people are motivated to fulfill their human potentialMaslow’s theory of motivationDesire to become self-actualized is the highest human goalRogers’ humanistic theoryPerson-centered approachHighlights importance of parental treatment in child’s personality developmentUnconditional positive regardAtmosphere of acceptance under which children develop most effectivelySeparate approval of behavior from approval of childType and trait approachesPersonality typesDiscrete categories based on global personality characteristicsImplicit personality theoriesThe tendency to assume that personality characteristics go togetherAllow people to predict others’ behavior in new situationsPredictions made on minimal evidenceThe trait approachStudy of personality by focusing on relatively stable behavioral dispositionsFactor analysisStatistical technique for studying responses to personality questionnairesGroups items with correlated responses to extract latent variables (=traits)Trait modelsEysenck’s hierarchical modelMultiple levels of organization:ResponsesHabitsTraitsSuperordinate traitsIntroversion-extraversionEmotional stabilityConstraint (earlier: “Psychoticism”)The Big Five trait modelView that there are five central personality traitsEach trait is composed of several lower order traitsLearning and cognition in personalityPersonal constructs (Kelly)People’s interpretations and expectations about their social worldConstructs influence behaviorsLocus of control (Rotter)People differ in beliefs about the effectiveness of their own actionsInternal locus of controlExternal locus of controlSelf-efficacy (Bandura)The extent to which people believe they can achieve specific goalsPeople develop expectancies through observational learningCAPS: Cognitive-Affective Personality System (Mischel)Responses determined byhow a person perceives a situationthe skills to deal with the situationexpected outcome of planned actionsHow is personality assessed and what does it predict?General approaches to personalityIdiographic


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