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FSU PSB 2000 - Study Guide for Optional Final Exam

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Study Guide for Optional Final ExamCELLS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM• Know the parts of a neuron and their functions. Be able to label the parts of a neuron. Dendrites: receive neurotransmitters Soma: cell body; contains nucleus. Axon: sends electrical impulses to terminals. Terminals: Contain neurotransmitters and release them. • How are sensory neurons and motor neurons different from each other?  Motor neuron: soma in spinal cord, terminals are connected to muscle fibers.  Sensory Neuron: soma lives out of the spinal cord, most of length is axon, terminals are in spinal cord, specialized endings • What are the functions of oligodendrocytes and schwann cells? Are there other types of glial cells? Oligodendrocytes: makes myelin in CNS Scwann cells: makes myelin in PNS Astrocytes = wrap around terminals of related axons, remove waste material, dilate blood vessels in active regions of brain, provide nutrients from blood to neurons, BBB Microglia =repair (remove waste, fungi, microorganisms) Radial glia =guide cell & axon migration during development; after development turn into neuronsGROSS ANATOMY OF THE BRAIN• What/where is the blood brain barrier?  Endothelial cells w/ tight junctions surrounding capillaries in brain. • What is gray matter? White matter? Gray matter: mass of cell bodies. White matter: mass of neurons with myelin sheath.• What are the 3 primary divisions of the brain? Forebrain: thinking, perceiving, big part of emotion & memory, drive-related behaviors Midbrain: sensory pathways, visual and auditory processing/reflexes, top of brainstem Hindbrain: Some motor control, reflexes (breathing, heart rate, etc), Bottom of brainstem (pons, medulla) and cerebellum• For the following brain structures, be able to identify them on a midline section of the brain, and know generally what they do: medulla, pons, cerebellum, midbrain, thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, corpus callosum. Also know hippocampus and amygdala, although you couldn’t find them on a sagittal section of the brain because they are not midline structures. Medulla: Controls vital reflexes: breathing, heart rate, vomiting, salivation, coughing, sneezing Pons: The pons is a portion of the hindbrain that connects the cerebral cortex with the medulla oblongata. It also serves as a communications and coordination center between the two hemispheres of the brain. Cerebellum: Movement, Well-learned movements, Sensory timing, Balance Midbrain: Reflexive orienting to visual and auditory stimuli, Intrinsic/descending pain control Thalamus: Relay station/ filter for sensory info on its way to cortex Hypothalamus: Communicates with pituitary gland to alter hormone release Pituitary gland: Makes and releases hormones into bloodstream Corpus callosum: Connects the two brain hemispheres.  Hippocampus: memory Amygdala: emotion• Cranial nerves: what is their general function (I’ll give you this one: sensory and motor for face and head…know what that means?). How many are there?  bring information from the sense organs to the brain; other cranial nerves control muscles; other cranial nerves are connected to glands or internal organs 12 pairs• We discussed 2 systems: the limbic system and the basal ganglia. Know the general function(s) of each.  Limbic system: made of amygdala and hippocampus. Controls memory and emotion. Basal ganglia: involved in movement and facilitate or inhibit cortical activity• Be able to locate the lobes of the cortex & know what primary sensory cortex is associated with each. Also know which lobe contains motor cortex and prefrontal cortex.  Frontal lobe: in the front. Planning, Working memory, Socially appropriate behavior. Contains motor cortex and Broca’s area: speech production. Parietal lobe: on top. Contains somatosensory cortex. Temporal lobe, on bottom. Contains auditory cortex and Wernicke’s area: speech understanding Occipital lobe: in back. Contains the primary visual cortex. • What are ventricles?  Contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CSF is made in walls of ventricles by choroid plexus CSF reabsorbed into blood vessels, so continuous turnover Protective Reservoir for hormones, nutrients• What/where are the meninges? 3 layers  Dura mater Arachnoid Pia mater Stabilizes & protects the CNS Mechanically CSF within meninges (b/t arachnoid and pia) for buoyancySPINAL CORD AND PNS• Know the parts of the spinal cord (dorsal horn, ventral horn, dorsal root, ventral root, central canal, dorsal root ganglion). Be able to label them on a figure.  Dorsal horn: receives sensory information. Ventral horn: contains motor neurons. Dorsal root: carrys information from sensory organs to the brain. Ventral root: carrys impulses to muscles and organs.  Central canal: runs entire length of cord. Contains CSF Dorsal root ganglion: collections of cell bodies of sensory neurons• Know the Bell-Magendie law. The entering dorsal roots carry sensory information to the brain  & the exiting ventral roots carry motor information to the muscles and glands • Generally speaking, what is a reflex?  Involuntary, stereotyped response to a sensory input• What structures comprise the CNS and what structures comprise the PNS?  CNS: Brain and Spinal cord PNS: all nerves outside of brain and spinal cord• How is the PNS subdivided? What are the distinct roles of the somatic, enteric, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems?  PNS subdivided into somatic nervous system and autonomic NS. Somatic: nerves going from sense organs to CNS & from CNS to muscles & glands Autonomic: controls heart, intestines, other organs Sympathetic NS: for vigerous activity (fight or flight)  Parasympathetic NS: vegetative, nonemergency responses Enteric NS: controls gastrointestinal system.• Understand the differences between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems in terms of (1) under what circumstances each one is activated and (2) physiological effects.  Sympathetic: activated for fight or flight. Pupils dilate, sweat, increased heart rate, inhibits digestion Parasympathetic: Facilitates vegetative, nonemergency functions. Stimulates salivation, slows heartbeat, stimulates digestion,ACTION POTENTIAL AND RESTING POTENTIAL• When the cell is at rest, which ions are most highly


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