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FSU PSB 2000 - Brain and Behavior Final Exam

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CELLS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM1. Know the parts of a neuron and their functions. Be able to label the parts of a neuron.MembraneDefines the outer boundaries of a cell and also constitutes many of the cell organellesNucleusContaining the nucleolus and chromosomes.NucleolusA structure within the nucleus of a cell that produces the ribosomesMitochondrionAn organelle that is responsible for extracting energy from nutrientsEndoplasmic ReticulumRough ER contains ribosomes and is involved with production of proteins that are secreted by the cell. Smooth ER is the site of synthesis of lipids and provides channels for the segregation of molecules involved in various cellular processes.Golgi ApparatusA complex of parallel membranes in the cytoplasm that wraps the products of a secretory cell2. How are sensory neurons and motor neurons different from each other?Motor Neurons: The cell body (soma) lives in the spinal cord. The axon is part of a nerve in your body. The terminals synapse with muscle fibers.Sensory Neurons: The soma lives just outside of the spinal cord (in a dorsal root ganglion). Most of its length is an axon. Specialized endings in the skin, and its terminals are in the spinal cord. Sensory is unipolar. Motor is multipolar.3. What are the functions of oligodendrocytes and schwann cells? Are there other types of glial cells?Oligodendrocytes =myelin in CNS.Schwann cells =myelin in PNSAstrocytes: wrap around terminals of related axons, remove waste material, provide structural supportMicroglia: repairRadial glia: guide migration and after development turn into neuronsGROSS ANATOMY OF THE BRAIN1. What/where is the blood brain barrier?Thicker wall surrounding the blood vessels.Endothelial cells w/ tight junctions surrounding capillaries.Astrocytes surround endothelial cells.2. What is gray matter? White matter?Gray matter: cerebral cortexWhite matter: consists mostly of myelinated axons3. What are the 3 primary divisions of the brain?Hindbrain – pons / medulla / cerebellumMidbrain – top portion of brainstemForebrain – cortex / thalamus / hypothalamus / hippocampus / amygdala / basal ganglia / etc.4. For the following brain structures, be able to identify them on a midline section of the brain, and know generally what they do: medulla, pons, cerebellum, midbrain, thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, corpus callosum. Also know hippocampus and amygdala, although you couldn’t find them on a sagittal section of the brain because they are not midline structures.Medulla – VITALS: breathing, heart rate, vomiting, salivation, coughing, sneezingPons – part of brain stemCerebellum - Movement (rate / range / force / direction), well learned movements, balance/posture, sensory timingMidbrain - visual and auditory stimuli (don’t think about it; reflexive) / substantia nigra (cells that make dopamine ; part of basal ganglia)Thalamus – motor/emotional/memory, Relaty station / filter for sensory info on its way to cortexHypothalamus – 4 f’s (feed/fight/flight/fuck), maintenance of homeostasis, communicates w pituitary to alter hormones (pituitary stalk)Pituitary gland - hormonesHippocampus – learning / memoryCorpus callosum – how hemispheres communicate with one anotherAmygdala- emotion5. Cranial nerves: what is their general function (I’ll give you this one: sensory and motor for face and head…know what that means?). How many are there?12 pairsSensory & motor for head/faceImportant for neuro exams, autonomic component (pupil constriction, tearing, salivating, cardiovascular functions)6. We discussed 2 systems: the limbic system and the basal ganglia. Know the general function(s) of each.Limbic system – amygdala (emotion) & hippocampus (learning/memory)Basal ganglia - Facilitate or inhibit cortical activity, motor control, memory and emotional expression7. Be able to locate the lobes of the cortex & know what primary sensory cortex is associated with each. Also know which lobe contains motor cortex and prefrontal cortex.Frontal (front)Primary cortex (back of frontal) – motor commands (voluntary movement)Prefrontal cortex (very front of frontal) – executive functions (planning/insight)Motor cortex – voluntary movement / motor production of language (brocas)Parietal (top/back)Somatosensory cortex (front of parietal) – 1st to process touch infoTemporal (temples)Auditory cortex – 1st to process sound infoOccipital (back)Visual cortex – vision8. What are ventricles?Ventricles – fluid filled spaces within brain (filled with CSF)9. What/where are the meninges?Meninges – just inside the skull attached to brainStabilizes brain/skull and protects CNSSPINAL CORD AND PNS1. Know the parts of the spinal cord (dorsal horn, ventral horn, dorsal root, ventral root, central canal, dorsal root ganglion). Be able to label them on a figure.Dorsal horn – Specialized endings enter here and travel to brainVentral horn – The soma lies here (spinal cord)Dorsal root – sensory brings in (near spinal cord)Ventral root – motor sends out (near spinal cord)Central canal – cerebrospinal fluid-filled space that runs through the length of the spinal cordDorsal root ganglion – sensory neuron lives here2. Know the Bell-Magendie law.Bell-Magendie - Sensory info enters dorsal and motor info leaves ventral3. Generally speaking, what is a reflex?Reflex - Involuntary, stereotyped response to a sensory inputStretch reflex – muscle contraction in response to stretchReflexes can be modifiable4. What structures comprise the CNS and what structures comprise the PNS?CNS – brain and spinal cordPNS – somatic / autonomic / parasympathetic / sympathetic5. How is the PNS subdivided? What are the distinct roles of the somatic, enteric, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems?Enteric (reflexes)Somatic (voluntary muscles)Autonomic (involuntary muscles)Parasympathetic (peace) & sympathetic (stress)6. Understand the differences between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems in terms of (1) under what circumstances each one is activated and (2) physiological effects.Sympathetic:Axons activate organs for “fight or flight”Increases BP, HR, adrenaline, oxygen circulation, pupil size, and blood clottingParasympathetic:Activated under nonemergency functionsInhibits physiological effects of sympathetic NSACTION POTENTIAL AND RESTING POTENTIAL1. When the cell is at rest, which ions are most highly concentrated inside of the cell, and which ones are most highly


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