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FSU PSB 2000 - Variations in sexual behavior

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Study Questions section 3Variations in sexual behavior•What are some differences in sexual behavior between males and females, and witha given sex?B/w males and females: number of partners, what is sought in a mate, psychological components. w/in the same sex: heterosexual, bisexual, homosexual•Understand the difference between a person’s “gender” and their “sex”. Understand the difference between gender identity and sexual orientation. What does it mean that these are “continuous rather than categorical)?Gender-This is what I call myself. Sexual orientation: who you are attracted to. Sexual orientation is continuous for females and categorical for males. •What is evidence that genetics, hormones, prenatal hormone exposure, and/or prenatal stress have roles in sexual orientation? The genes that cause homosexuality are recessive, its epigenetics. Prenatal hormones have a slight effect because partial feminization in gay men begin before puberty. Stress either increases endorphins or corticosterone which increases or decreases testosterone release.•What are some differences in brain anatomy between homosexual and heterosexual individuals?Hemisphere size (R larger then left in heterosexuals), Amygdala (L has more widespread connections then R in heterosexuals), SCN (gay men >straight men) •What is the relevance of data such as differences in bone length between gay and straight individuals?Bone length is longer in men then women, homosexual males shifted in female direction and vise versa.•What are pseudohermaphrodites or intersexes? Intersexes- individuals whose sexual development is intermediate or ambiguous,•Know/understand Turner’s syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome, congential adrenal hyperplasia, androgen insensitivity syndrome, and DHT deficiency.Turners sundrome-x0 genotype, poor ovaries, low hormone, infertile, immature sex, female gender, heterosexual, Klinefelters- XXY genotype, SRY-male, internal sex is OK, small testes, low T, low sperm, Gynecomastia, male gender, Congenital adrenal (xx)-too much testosterone during development, androgen insensitivity (xy)- mutation on x chromosome encoding the androgen receptor, thus un responsice to T, DHT deficiency (xy)-a genetic mutation causing a defect in the enzyme 5a-reductase, results in low levels ofDHT•What is the current advise given to parents with a baby whose sex is intermediate?Do nothing without informed consent, identify as male or female based on predominant external genitalia, rear child as consistently as possible, but be aware that the person will later be oriented towards males, females, both orneither, don’t perform surgery until person is old enough to make own decisionChemosenses•What is the law of specific nerve energies?Important aspect of all sensory perception, impulses mean one thing when they occur in one neuron and something else when they occur in a different neuron. •What is transduction?Takes environmental energy and converts in to electrical energy•What is the function of taste in general? What do the different primary tastes tell us?Taste controls ingestion, the primary tastes tell us if something is poisonous or good for you•What/where are papillae? What/where are taste buds? What/where are taste receptor cells? Do the receptor cells have axons?A papilla is a bump on the tongue that contains many taste buds. Taste receptor cells are in each taste buds. Receptor cells do not have axons•What type of receptor (ionotropic or metabotropic) are each of the primary receptors?Salt and sour are ionotropic and sweet and bitter are metabotropic•What is adaptation?When a taste receptor has been fatigued so that taste isn’t as “tasteful”•Understand the genetic aspect of taste (PTC, tasters, nontasters, supertasters).Some people have the PTC taste bud which is a recessive trait. Some people can taste bitter very strongly if they have these receptors or not at all if they don’t have these receptors.•What qualities of taste are coded using cross-fiber patterning, and what aspects arecoded using label line? BTW, of those 2 choices, how do you think smell is coded?Cross-fiber: Taste quality is represented by the pattern of activity across a population of neurons. Label line coding-each receptor would respond to a limited range of stimuli and the meaning would depend entirely on which neurons are active. Smell is coded using cross-fiber patterning.•What cranial nerves carry taste info? What is the role of the trigeminal nerve?The vagus nerve, glossoparyngeal nerve, trigeminal nerve-touch, pressure, temp, pain.•Where does taste info go in the brain and what are the functions of each of those regions?It goes to the thalamus ( relayes, filters info), hypothalamus (feeding behavior, hormone control), Amygdala (emotional memoy, approach/avoidance), Orbitofrontal (assigns affective value to things), somatosensory cortex (touch/temp/pain), insula (primary taste cortex)•How does taste sensitivity change in women? Is there a role of the prenatal environment in taste perception?Taste sensitivity rises and falls with her monthly hormone cycle and peaks in early pregnancy when estrogen levels are very high.•What is the function of olfaction?Approach/avoidance, Additional social role (pheromones)•Anatomy of the olfactory system: Where are the receptor cells? Where are the receptors themselves? Where does smell info go in the brain and what is the role of each brain area in processing smell info (don’t forget the olfactory bulb)? Also know:Cribriform plate, olfactory nerve. –Here’s a little review: olfactory receptor cells are in the olfactory epithelium…cilia (dendrites) extend into mucosa and contain receptors, axon travels thru cribriform plate as part of olfactory nerve and end in olfactory bulb. What is anosmia, and whatcan cause it? Anosmia is an inability to perceive odors, can be caused by the death of the receptor cells•Are olfactory receptors metabotropic or ionotropic?Metabotropic, flux Na+ and Ca2+•What is specific anosmia, and what is its most common cause?Ansomia is the inability to smell a single chemical. An infection or death of a receptor cell•Is the hedonic nature of odors learned or genetic?•What are some differences between men and women in olfaction?Women detect odors more readily then men and women sensitize to odors until they smell them in very faint amounts.•How/why do olfactory thresholds increase with


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