U of M ANTH 1001 - Lecture 16 11-7-17 Geology and Human Evolution (16 pages)

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Lecture 16 11-7-17 Geology and Human Evolution



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Lecture 16 11-7-17 Geology and Human Evolution

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Pages:
16
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents

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11 8 2017 Course Business Midterm 2 Tuesday Nov 14 50 multiple choice questions Exam will cover Lectures Weeks 6 10 Labs 5 9 Text book ch 5 9 ALA 4 was skipped 2 1 11 8 2017 Geology the Context of Human Evolution 3 We have examined the evolutionary theory and the living laboratory and now we can use the uniformitarian principle and theoretical guidance to apply these lessons to human evolutionary history 4 2 11 8 2017 Topics for Today How do we find fossils and their preserved behaviors Geoarchaeology geology archaeology Site formation processes Dating techniques How do we know the conditions of natural selection and the other three forces of evolution in the past Methods of paleoclimatic reconstruction 5 Where does one find fossils and artifacts with which to reconstruct human evolution 6 6 3 11 8 2017 Site Formation Processes 1 Sediment Traps Depositional environment to capture the behaviors in the past 2 Stable environment that allows site preservation 3 Opportunity for site discovery often erosion or the intersection between our landscape and the past landscape 7 7 Context What objects are found together assemblages of fossils artifacts The association between what is dated and what we want to study Site location Excavation is destruction 8 8 4 11 8 2017 Extreme Preservation extreme environments Very Cold Very Dry Very Wet anaerobic Unfortunately these types are irrelevant for paleoanthropology 9 9 Common good and bad contexts for preservation Good Rapid burial Fine grained sediment airborne or from still water environments FOSSILIZATION replacing bone tissue with stone Bad Weathering sunlight Consumption and trampling by animals Acidic soil Geologically active localities 10 10 5 11 8 2017 Volcanic Depositional Environments 11 11 East African Rift Valley System a natural sediment trap Olduvai Gorge 12 12 6 11 8 2017 13 Karstic Depositional Systems of South Africa View from above Cross section 14 14 7 11 8 2017 Sterkfontein Cave South Africa 15 Cave Depositional Systems mostly Eurasia 16 16 8 11 8 2017 La Ferrassie Cave France 17 The drunk under the lamp post 18 18 9 11 8 2017 ALA 9a If the tooth comb contains both the incisors and canines the first tooth immediately behind the tooth comb is a n a Molar b Canine c Incisor d Premolar e Ribosome 19 Relative Dating Techniques Stratigraphy Principle of Superposition Stratigraphic Correlation example of Bryce to Zion to Grand Canyon Biostratigraphy 20 10 11 8 2017 Relative Dating Paleomagnetism 21 Absolute or Chronometric Dating Techniques Using radioactive decay as a clock Potassium Argon 40K 40A Dating Dating volcanic sediments from 10 000 years to 4 5 billion years 22 11 11 8 2017 Argon Argon Dating 40Ar 39Ar an advanced measurement of traditional K Ar to date single grains 23 Another important chronometric dating technique Radiocarbon Materials organic living tissue that incorporates carbon Range 200 years 60 000 years 24 12 11 8 2017 Radiocarbon is only a quasi absolute technique until it can



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