U of M ANTH 1001 - Lecture 20 11-28-17 The Robust Australopiths (26 pages)

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Lecture 20 11-28-17 The Robust Australopiths



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Lecture 20 11-28-17 The Robust Australopiths

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Pages:
26
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents

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11 29 2017 Course business Hand in Ape Genius ALA at the end of lecture Final exam Dec 19th 1 Chimpanzee 1 Modern human Australopithecus sediba Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus anamensis Orrorin tugenensis 2 2 1 11 29 2017 Probable Hominins various Genera Gracile Hominins Australopithecus Robusts Hominins Paranthropus P robustus P aethiopicus P boisei 3 What distinguishes the gracile Australopithecus from the robust Paranthropus 4 2 11 29 2017 Australopiths meaning any early hominin before Homo Australopithecus graciles Paranthropus robusts 5 Genus Paranthropus Orthognathic face Wide dish shaped face due to flying zygomatic arches Sagittal crest anteriorly placed Paranthropus robustus Australopithecus africanus 6 6 3 11 29 2017 Morphology of Paranthropus Huge molars Big molariform premolars Tiny incisors and canines Thick enamel Fortified mandible 7 7 8 8 To what function do all of these features relate P robustus Homo sapiens MASTICATION 4 11 29 2017 Heavy grinding and chewing wide face Temporalis Muscle Masseter Muscle Sagittal crest Orthognathic face 9 9 10 10 Grinding tough gritty foods not ripping tearing gripping with front teeth 5 11 29 2017 P robustus A africanus Remember the gracile and the robust Australopiths have the same body size Paranthropus masticatory system is the only robust thing about it 11 11 Two species of Paranthropus are very similar to each other P robustus S Africa P boisei E Africa 12 6 11 29 2017 Paranthropus robustus Swartkrans Kromdraai South Africa 2 0 1 5 Ma 530 c c 13 Paranthropus boisei East Turkana Kenya Olduvai Tanzania Konso Ethiopia 2 2 1 3 Ma 500 550 c c More robust than P robustus 14 7 11 29 2017 Basic distribution of early hominins East Africa A afarensis P boisei Hadar Olduvai Laetoli South Africa A africanus P robustus 15 15 How is the genus Paranthropus related to the earlier hominins Difficult to say since they are so derived 16 8 11 29 2017 Is Paranthropus one or multiple lineages Paranthropus boisei Paranthropus robustus Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus anamensis 17 17 Closely related Paranthropus Paranthropus boisei Paranthropus robustus tough grinding adaptation A africanus A afarensis A anamensis 18 18 9 11 29 2017 Polyphyletic Paranthropus boisei Paranthropus robustus tough grinding adaptation A africanus A afarensis A anamensis 19 19 Majority of evidence Paranthropus Paranthropus boisei Paranthropus robustus tough grinding adaptation A africanus A afarensis A anamensis 20 10 11 29 2017 The Black Skull Paranthropus aethiopicus Lake Turkana Kenya Laetoli Tanzania 2 6 2 3 Ma A afarensis 21 P aethiopicus P boisei 410 c c Marked prognathism Compount sagittal nuchal crest like A afarensis Sagittal crest anterior and posterior Large anterior and posterior dentition Molariform premolars Wide dish shaped face P aethiopicus 22 11 11 29 2017 Chimpanzee Next on All My Ancestors Paranthropus boisei Modern human Paranthropus robustus



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