U of M ANTH 1001 - Lecture 25 12-12-17 Homo sapiens (20 pages)

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Lecture 25 12-12-17 Homo sapiens



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Lecture 25 12-12-17 Homo sapiens

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20
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents
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12 13 2017 Anatomically Modern Humans Engaging prey at a distance may remove selective force for robust bones Advanced compound technology allows true projectiles the atl atl or spear thrower Atl atl does not spread into Eurasia until after 50 kya Bow and arrow only certain after 15 kya 2 1 12 13 2017 Platform cores Microblade cores cores 5cm producing bladelets 1cm wide Blade cores producing flakes called blades with a length width ratio 2 1 Blade Technology John Shea in press Stone Tools in Human Evolution The Archaeology of Behavioral Differences Among Technological Primates Cambridge University Press 3 New compound tools using small microlithic technology cutting edges Blades flakes with length 2xWidth are the best standardized blanks for segmenting into compound tools Diversification and economization of tasks one can accomplish with a cutting edge 4 2 12 13 2017 Who invented all of these technological innovations in Africa during the Middle Stone Age 5 Herto Ethiopia Anatomically Modern Human at 195 160 kya 6 3 12 13 2017 What is an anatomically modern human Small gracile face Protruding chin Small teeth Rounded globular skull High forehead High pentagonal shape when viewed from behind Gracile postcranium long more slender limbs 7 Neanderthals win the First Near Eastern Stand off Moderns in the Near East 115 90 ka BOTH use Middle Paleolithic material culture Neanderthals in the Near East 90 50 ka Bar Yosef Vandermeersch Behavioral Modernity appeared separately and later than Anatomical Modernity 8 4 12 13 2017 It is partly the cultural evolution of Late Pleistocene Homo sapiens that will tell us why we inherited the Earth while all of the other Homo species went extinct 9 Earliest post crania of Modern Humans in Europe are clearly tropical in proportions Upper Paleolithic population of Central Europe Doln V stonice triple burial 30 28 ka 10 5 12 13 2017 Lower limb proportions Tibia Femur crural index cold adapted Mandibular angle Neanderthallike Erik Trinkaus Lagar Velho Portugal at 25 kya Skeletal evidence for Neanderthal Modern mixture 11 12 6 12 13 2017 What of genetics 13 Nuclear vs Mitochondrial DNA Nuclear DNA from both parents Mitochondrial DNA only from mother Mostly Coding Mostly Non coding Mostly adaptation a little history Mostly lineage history Codon 3 base pairs coding for an amino acid Exon sequence of codons that makes a protein i e exon gene Intron sequence of base pairs not coding for amino acids mtDNA does not code mutations will not be removed and therefore is a clock if you know the mutation rate 14 7 12 13 2017 Non coding sequences of mtDNA variability in living peoples Early work variability pools on a few loci only 15 The Origin and Spread of Modern Humans using mtDNA tree geographic locations 16 8 12 13 2017 The Most Recent Common Ancestor TMRCA Coalescent A Fact of Genetic Reduction for mtDNA Eve Non recombining part of Y chromosome Any segment of DNA small enough to avoid recombination during meiosis 17 mtDNA sequences obtained from Neanderthals growing everyday Feldhofer Cave Germany Mezmaiskaya Cave Russia Vindija Cave 75 77 80 Croatia Engis 2 Belgium Scladina Belgium La Chapelle France Rochers de Villeneuve France Monte Lessini Italy El Sidr n Spain Denisova Russian Siberia 18 9 12 13 2017 Neanderthals as a separate evolutionary clade Ancient DNA Svante P bo Genetics Cranial morphology 19 19 But consider Although the number of sequence differences between Neanderthals and living humans is greater than that found among living humans today it is still within the range seen between chimpanzee subspecies Thus Neanderthals could be a subspecies rather than a species 20 10 12 13 2017 1 4 Genetic contribution of Neanderthals into living Eurasians 21 Homo sapiens neanderthalensis or Homo neanderthalensis 22 11 12 13 2017 Steps in our Unilineal Evolution vs Mosaic Evolution 23 Steps in our Mosaic Evolution I Late Miocene through Pliocene 7 to 2 5 mya the mosaic evolution of the anatomical adaptations for being the best bipedal ape Ex While all hominin taxa had the valgus knee and sagittallyoriented iliac blades there was a mosaic of bipedal traits in the feet compare A afarensis with A sediba Ex Upper body shows continuity of arboreal adaptations Ex Appearance of earliest stone tools by 2 6 mya 24 12 12 13 2017 Steps in our Mosaic Evolution II First Quarter of the Pleistocene 2 5 1 85 mya the mosaic evolution of the best dietary adaptations for being a biped who gets its food from the ground using the beginnings of logistical mobility Ex Increasing diversity in 13C dietary ratios showing a gradual move from a C3 to mixed C3 C4 plant diet Ex Appearance of the Australopith Paranthropus genus with robust dentition the hard food C4 adaptation Ex Appearance of the Early Homo taxa H habilis H rudolfensis out of the gracile Australopiths Ex Appearance of the Oldowan as a new way to extract fat protein from the emerging grasslands Ex At the very end of this period 2 0 mya we see the appearance of H 25 erectus in Africa Steps in our Mosaic Evolution III Second Quarter of the Pleistocene 1 85 0 80 mya the mosaic evolution of the best post cranial anatomical adaptations for being an omnivorous biped with a major emphasis on meat Ex H erectus as a committed terrestrial biped with deep pelvis and modern upper vs lower limb proportions Ex This opens up new scavenging hunting opportunities endurance running more sharing opportunities less restriction to specific habitats the first Out of Africa event Ex Expensive Tissue Hypothesis for affording greater brain size through higher quality foods more carnivory possibly cooking plant foods by 1 mya Ex First evidence for longer lived primates Dmanisi s wisdom of the aged at 1 79 mya Extinction of Paranthropus 1 3 mya 26 13 12 13 2017 Steps in our Mosaic Evolution IV Third Quarter of the Pleistocene 800 200 kya the mosaic evolution of behavioral adaptations for being an omnivorous biped with a major emphasis on meat Ex More efficient material culture for logistical mobility the Acheulean adds bifaces begins at 1 76 mya and expands to mid latitudes during warm stages during this period Ex Evidence for use of fire by 1 0 mya wooden hunting tools beginning of a true hominin Niche Construction Ex One anatomical adaptation of importance reduced sexual dimorphism indicates modern human like investment in the pair bond Sima de los Huesos Atapuerca Spain 27 Steps in our Mosaic Evolution V The Late Pleistocene the Penultimate


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