U of M ANTH 1001 - Lecture 22 12-5-17 Homo erectus (24 pages)

Previewing pages 1, 2, 23, 24 of 24 page document View the full content.
View Full Document

Lecture 22 12-5-17 Homo erectus



Previewing pages 1, 2, 23, 24 of actual document.

View the full content.
View Full Document
View Full Document

Lecture 22 12-5-17 Homo erectus

97 views


Pages:
24
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents
Unformatted text preview:

12 6 2017 Homo erectus KNM WT 15000 Nariokotome Boy Course Business Final exam Tuesday Dec 19th Same room and time 75 questions 25 older material 75 newer material since midterm 2 TA study sessions attend one attend all of them if you d like 1 12 6 2017 Topics Homo erectus some details Behavioral innovations in the Lower Middle Pleistocene Use of Fire Wooden tools The Acheulean tradition Increased Logistical Mobility Homo heidelbergensis the catch all of the Middle Pleistocene 3 GO EAST YOUNG MAN well hominin Homo erectus in the low latitudes in the Early Pleistocene in the middle latitudes by Middle Pleistocene 4 2 12 6 2017 Eugene Du Bois and Pithecanthropus erectus upright ape man Java Man 1891 5 Trinil 2 Java the first one so The Type Specimen of Homo erectus Sagittal keel Long low vault Big brow ridges Angulated occipital discovered in 1891 by Eugene Dubois dates to around 1 0 0 7 myr 6 3 12 6 2017 Sinanthropus pekinensis Chinese man from Peking Discovered in 1929 at Zhoukoudian China Focus of human origins switches from Europe to Asia This and 8 other skulls lost during WWII Pierre Teilhard de Chardin Jesuit priest philosopher paleontologist 7 Sinanthropus pekinensis 1929 Pithecanthropus erectus 1894 priority Pithecanthropus 1894 Homo Linneaus 1758 H erectus 8 4 12 6 2017 Homo erectus from China Zhoukoudien 780 000 300 000 ya angular torus 9 nuchal torus Zhoukoudien Xll H erectus morphology Date range 2 0 mya to 30 000 years 750 1250 c c brain size Thick cranial vault red arrow Subnasal prognathism Short wide face Projecting nose No chin Sharply angled occipital Angular torus blue line Sagital keel yellow arrow Nuchal torus Supraorbital torus Supraorbital sulcus 10 5 12 6 2017 Return of anterior processing H erectus incisors canines emphasize biting tearing less well suited for extensive molar chewing compared to Early Homo Australopiths 11 New Lower Middle Pleistocene Adaptations Hominins 6 12 6 2017 Endurance Running Hypothesis for adaptive innovation of H erectus Bramble Lieberman 2004 Nature Bramble Lieberman 2004 Nature 13 An External Nose to moisten air before it hits lungs in the dry open habitats of the Pleistocene Important for running 14 7 12 6 2017 Body hair reduction with H erectus committed terrestrial bipedalism to allow increased sweating 15 Modern human Homo erectus Looking for derived features for Endurance Running vs Walking Pan troglodytes A afarensis 16 8 12 6 2017 Homo erectus the first intercontinental hominin 17 Homo erectus issues Mating Systems OH 12 and OH 9 18 9 12 6 2017 Cortical Bone thickness and muscular strength and activity Homo erectus had thick bones 19 Temporal trends among H erectus fossils Brain size increase starts earlier in Africa 20 10 12 6 2017 Temporal trends among H erectus Body weight estimates from fossil remains show that H erectus EVENTUALLY had a larger body than earlier hominins did Later H erectus in East Asia Early H erectus at Dmanisi 21 Precocial Modjokerto Baby Indonesia 1 5 years old at death based on maturation of the cranial bones Given brain size had fast growth of brain after birthnot born in altricial state grew up fast like a chimpanzee rather than a modern human 22 11 12 6 2017 Pelvis from a very small female most likely Homo erectus with capacious birth canal 1 5 myr from Gona Ethiopia Mom had enough room to give birth to precocial offspring with relatively mature brains like an apes No Cephalopelvic Disproportion 23 Modern human Homo erectus Homo rudolfensis Homo habilis Paranthropus A garhi Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus anamensis 24 12 12 6 2017 Unlike other organisms humans acquire a rich body of information from others by teaching imitation and other forms of social learning and this culturally transmitted information strongly influences human behavior Culture is an essential part of the human adaptation and as much a part of human biology as bipedal locomotion or thick enamel on our molars Robert Boyd 25 Zhoukoudian China Peking Man H erectus 0 77 0 3 mya Occupation of middle latitudes indicates tolerance of colder regions than previous hominins although occupation likely only during warm periods 26 13 12 6 2017 Colonization of the Middle Latitudes in Europe What might have made middle latitude colonization more likely By 0 80 ma Dmanisi by 1 78 ma By 1 2 ma 27 28 14 12 6 2017 Use of fire as a dominant adaptation among humans 29 Techno organic evolution continued 30 15 12 6 2017 Maillard Reaction protein modifications by reducing sugars through heating i e the browning of food Cooking Doubles Calories 31 32 16 12 6 2017 Wrangham Carmody 2010 Evolutionary Anthropology 33 When does the use of fire appear 34 17 12 6 2017 Fire seen by thermoluminescence at Gesher Benot Ya acov Israel at 0 79 mya Unburnt lithics Burnt lithics Alperson Afil et al 2007 35 Geochemical evidence for fire at 1 0 ma in an Acheulean layer at Wonderwerk Cave South Africa Berna et al 2012 PNAS 36 18 12 6 2017 Lenticular hearths other evidence of habitual fire preserved at 0 35 ma Intact hearths are lenses Defined hearths w rocks only after 40 kya 37 Hayonim Cave Israel New ecological niche of terrestrial meat eating more to share By 1 8 mya there is a divergence in the genetics of the human tapeworm from that of the hyena s tapeworm So we were no longer sharing our meat sources with hyenas 38 19 12 6 2017 Increased meat eating provides higher quality food e g protein thus allows brain expansion The Expensive Tissue Hypothesis 39 Brain expansion requires high quality food which means either meat or high quality plant foods tubers or both 40 20 12 6 2017 Both of these nutritional sources require material culture to acquire 41 At the same time we see solid evidence for fire after 1 0 ma we find THE SHAPING OF WOOD 42 21 12 6 2017 Wooden artifacts at Gesher Benot Ya acov Israel at 0 79 mya 43 Sch ningen Germany javelins in situ with horse bones at 400 kya 44 22 12 6 2017 Sch ningen javelin detail 45 Clacton on Sea England wooden spear 300 kya Wooden weapons carved by stone show significant hunting of medium sized animals not just power scavenging 46 23 12 6 2017 47 24


View Full Document

Access the best Study Guides, Lecture Notes and Practice Exams

Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Lecture 22 12-5-17 Homo erectus and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Lecture 22 12-5-17 Homo erectus and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?