U of M ANTH 1001 - Lecture 14 10-31-17 Primate Mating Systems 2 (17 pages)

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Lecture 14 10-31-17 Primate Mating Systems 2



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Lecture 14 10-31-17 Primate Mating Systems 2

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Pages:
17
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents

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11 1 2017 1 Primate Mating Systems Life History 2 1 11 1 2017 Topics Examples of mating systems among particular primates Tamarin Savannah Baboon Hamadryas Baboon Gibbon Orangutan Gorilla Chimpanzee Bonobo Primate life histories precocial vs altricial babies Explanations for the relatively large brains of the primates Why study this No time machines 3 Marmosets Tamarins OneFemale Multi Male Polyandry Ecological Ecological Forces 1 Gum eaters patchy food distribution 2 Obligate twins require more parental care No RS without paternal investment Consequences 1 Small body size Party size of only 4 6 restricts group size Territorial defense of gum trees 2 Polyandry No malemale competition selecting for dimorphism kinselection Sibling nannies fathers related usually brothers 4 2 11 1 2017 Olive Baboons most OW Monkeys Polygynandry Multi male Multi female Ecological Consequences Ecological Forces 1 Even food distribution 2 Easy terrestrial and top of limb arboreal locomotion 1 Male resource defense impossible Party size is large female bonded Males disperse from natal group 2 Moderate sexual dimorphism with male hierarchy w alpha male Malefemale friendships 5 Hamadryas Baboons Polygyny Single male Multi female Ecological Forces 1 Patchy terrestrial food distribution 2 Easy terrestrial and top of limb arboreal locomotion Ecological Consequences 1 Female defense possible Party size is limited by patch size 2 High sexual dimorphism due to male male competition for the harem 6 3 11 1 2017 Gibbons Siamangs Monogamy Ecological Consequences Ecological Forces 1 Patchy seasonal canopy food distribution 2 High cost of locomotion by brachiation 1 Party size of only 2 4 restricts group to breeding pair plus offspring 2 Low male male competition results in no dimorphism monomorphic 7 Remember there s monogamy and then there s monogamy Anatomical adaptations for vs Seeking extra parental investment or worthier genes Monogamous pairs defending their territory with verbal calls while the male frequently grooms the female 8 4 11 1 2017 Orangutan Solitary Polygyny One male multi female Ecological Ecological Consequences Forces 1 Patchy seasonal food distribution 2 Slow but expensive quadrumanous climbing 3 No serious predators 1 Party size of only 2 4 restricts group size to mother offspring 2 Extreme malemale competition selecting for high sexual dimorphism 9 Body Weight Index of Dimorphism male female 175 lbs 86 lbs 2 02 Quad vs Suspense Brain Comparison 10 5 11 1 2017 Orangutans Solitary One male Multi female Two male strategies 1 Very dimorphic male 2 Small but mature male using forced copulations 11 Ecological Forces Gorillas Polygyny One male Multi female 1 Even food distribution mostly Terrestrial Herbaceous Vegetation pith shoots 2 Easy terrestrial knuckle walking some quadrumanous arboreal locomotion 3 No serious predators Ecological Consequences 1 Resource defense impossible 2 Extreme malemale competition selecting for high sexual dimorphism But given the food



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