U of M ANTH 1001 - Lecture 3-29-18 Genus Homo and 1st Out of Africa (69 pages)

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Lecture 3-29-18 Genus Homo and 1st Out of Africa



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Lecture 3-29-18 Genus Homo and 1st Out of Africa

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69
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents
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3 29 18 The Genus Homo the 1st Out of Africa D3444 D2282 D2700 1 reconstructions by John Gurche for National Geographic Practicalities Midterm 2 4 5 18 is a week from today covering lectures through today and this week s lab Lab 9 but not Lab 10 Lab 10 will be held next week 4 2 4 5 No lab between 4 9 and 4 12 2 Topics for Today Homo habilis and the Cerebral Rubicon Who made the Oldowan Some sample Midterm 2 questions The Questions of Early Homo One or Two species Homo or the last examples of Australopithecus The Site of Dmanisi and Hypotheses for the 1st Out of Africa range expansion for hominins 3 What does it mean to be human Large brain Obligate biped Complex tool use Fully opposable thumb Reduced dentition Greatly reduced canines Reduced prognathism Gracile morphology Reduced sexual dimorphism Reduction in body hair Increased number of sweat glands Neoteny slowed maturation Complex culture Language 4 Leakey Tobias Napier Nature 1964 Extend the range of the genus Homo to include brain sizes of 600c c Homo habilis typespecimen Olduvai Hominin 7 Type and paratype mostly juveniles or fragments Stone tools 1 8 1 6 Ma 5 Australopithecus Paranthropus 350 550c c 800c c 750c c 700c c Vallois Keith Weidenreich Homo 1050 1600c c 6 Early Homo locomotor adaptations a slightly better biped than the Australopiths Possibly still has arboreal intermembral index but data uncertain OH 62 OH7 type OH 8 foot More derived bipedal foot than A africanus Dentition shows chimp like growth rate 7 The Unusual Suspects Figure 01 11 8 Fingers Robusticity of finger bones indicates presence absence of power grip 9 Fingers indicating tool use 10 Paranthropus robustus Homo habilis finger tips 11 Paranthropus Who made the Oldowan Large apical tufts with precision gripping hand unlike apes or A afarensis Same brain size as some early Homo fossils More frequent fossils between 2 5 1 9 mya Meat cannot drive their C4 dietary signature Tiny anterior dentition may point to stone tool processing of foods before they go into the mouth Early Homo Precision grip Larger brain to body size ratio Reduced anterior dentition Current dates between 2 4 1 6 mya 12 And the Lomekwian The Even More Unusual Suspects Figure 01 11 13 Current Hominin Associations Chimpanzees capuchin monkeys today The Lomekwian Industry at 3 3 mya Possibly A afarensis The Oldowan Industry at 2 6 mya Possibly P boisei H habilis Shea 2017 Stone Tools in Human Evolution Cambridge University Press 14 For exams focus on the differences between the major letter categories e g B vs E among the Flintknapping Modes A I rather than the differences between Arabic subnumbers e g D1 vs D2 The lecture content for Midterm 2 covers up to and including this slide 15 Midterm 2 Sample questions ALA 17a Use ChimeIn cla umn edu or Text 24798 plus your answer to to 15037706789 to answer via SMS 17a Based on the discovery of multiple bones showing bipedality from multiple individuals which genus is currently interpreted to be the first certain biped a Orrorin b Sahelanthropus c Ardipithecus d Australopithecus e Paranthropus 16 Midterm 2 Sample questions ALA 17b Use ChimeIn cla umn edu or Text 24797 plus your answer to 15037706789 to answer via SMS 17b Imagine you are a paleoanthropologist working at a site believed to be older than 300 000 years old in East Africa There is partially fossilized bone in the layer with the hominin There is also a volcanic ash layer tuff covering the layer with the hominin remains Which of the following radiometric techniques would be the best choice to date the material a b c d e Carbon 14 Potassium Argon Uranium series dating Thermoluminescence Paleomagnitism 17 Midterm 2 Sample questions ALA 17c Use ChimeIn cla umn edu or Text 24799 plus your answer to 15037706789 to answer via SMS 17c True or False A valgus knee with a bicondylar angle is seen in habitual quadrupeds a True b False 18 Early Homo ER 1470 752 cc brain 19 Early Homo ER 1470 752 cc brain 20 Figure 11 32 21 Early Homo ER 1813 509 cc brain 22 Figure 11 34 Early Homo dates between 2 4 1 6 mya ER 1470 has Australopith face with molars the size of africanus but with bigger brain ER 1813 has more derived more modern traits of smaller face smaller teeth but also smaller brain 23 The Debate over Early Homo Lump Hypothesis Males with Australopith face and larger brain females with more derived H erectus small face but smaller brains Split Hypothesis too much dimorphism Bernard Wood Homo habilis i e OH7 OH 12 OH 16 OH 24 KNM ER1813 KNM ER1805 Homo rudolphensis Lake Turkana Homo KNMER1470 1590 3732 1802 24 Remember Evolution is a n not a n 25 Mosaic evolution different traits evolve at different rates Australopiths mosaic evolution of different ways to be a biped and different ways to chew food Early Homo mosaic evolution of different ways to house a larger brain in the skull 26 26 Type fossil for H habilis is OH 7 a small fossil like ER 1813 Homo rudolphensis Homo habilis 27 For splitters such as Bernard Wood early Homo falls within the genus Australopithecus based on their shared adaptive grade way of life A rudolphensis A habilis 28 P robustus Encephalization Quotient P boisei how big is the brain relative to what you would expect for the body size 29 Our current view of early human evolution Modern human Paranthropus boisei Paranthropus robustus Homo rudolfensis Homo habilis A sediba Paranthropus aethiopicus A garhi Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus anamensis Orrorin tugenensis 30 1st Out of Africa best date currently Stone tools at 1 85 mya Hominin fossils at 1 78 mya Dmanisi Georgia 31 Martha Tappen of U of M at Dmanisi Georgia 32 First finds from Dmanisi Georgia D3444 D2282 D2700 33 reconstructions by John Gurche for National Geographic Recently expanded Dmanisi Population Republic of Georgia 34 The newest skull 35 A mosaic of cranial traits within one population 36 Post cranial bones from 4 individuals Modern Human Dmanisi 37 Straits of Gibraltar Sinai Peninsula Bab el Mandeb Strait African apes Early hominins Range Expansion Main Routes Out of Africa Hypotheses for Hominin Range Expansion Why leave Africa Technological change evolution of the Acheulean tradition out of the Oldowan Generalized Range Expansion of African Faunas hominins following other animals Brain Size Increase Body Size Increase Mating system shifts to pair bonding monogamy Changes in reciprocity Older individuals transmit more knowledge and increased cooperation Trophic


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