U of M ANTH 1001 - Lecture 5 9-19-17 Genetics 1 (20 pages)

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Lecture 5 9-19-17 Genetics 1



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Lecture 5 9-19-17 Genetics 1

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Pages:
20
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents
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9 28 2017 Course Business Nisarg s new office hours Mon 3 30 4 30pm office hour Mon 4 30 5 30pm study hour 2 1 9 28 2017 9 19 17 Genetics The Biology of Variation Inheritance 3 Today s Objectives What Darwin did not know DNA What it is and what it does Mendelian genetics How is genetic variation achieved How is it passed to future generations 4 2 9 28 2017 Do NOT Panic When in doubt about how much to learn given the detail in the textbook use this lecture as a guide We are learning what you need to know of genetics to understand evolutionary theory not to become a geneticist or biochemist 5 Where is DNA and what does it do 6 3 9 28 2017 Cell Biology cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus genetic material other genetic material 7 Cell Biology cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus genetic material other genetic material 8 4 9 28 2017 Cell Biology cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus genetic material other genetic material 9 Cell Biology cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus genetic material other genetic material 10 5 9 28 2017 2 types of cells Somatic cells Contain the full compliment of chromosomes in humans 23 pairs Gametes Egg Sperm Contain only one of each of the 23 chromosomes 11 2 types of cells Somatic cells Gametes sex cells Egg produced in female humans while she is still a fetus in the womb Sperm produced by human adult males continually 12 6 9 28 2017 What is DNA DNA Nucleotides form a chain phosphate and sugar backbone Nucleotide bases adenine thymine cytosine guanine Two strands twist around each other forming a double helix 13 2 complementary strands of DNA join at the bases which form weak bonds to create the double stranded DNA molecule adenine thymine cytosine guanine P P S A T S P P S A T S P P S G C S P P S T A S P P S C G S P P S G C S 14 7 9 28 2017 Any questions so far 15 Reproduction of cells is accomplished through cell division Why do cells need to reproduce 16 8 9 28 2017 Functions of DNA 1 Replicates Itself Error rate of 1 per billion base pairs Human genome has 3 billion thus 3 errors per cell division What do you call a replication error when it happens in a developing sperm or egg cell 17 DNA coils into Chromosomes before cell division 18 9 9 28 2017 Replication during Mitosis generates duplicate cells cell division for somatic cells results in two identical daughter cells diploid condition is retained 19 Replication during Meiosis produces haploid gametes cell division for gametes results in four haploid daughter cells 20 10 9 28 2017 Some definitions DNA deoxyribonucleic acid molecule responsible for carrying genetic information Chromosomes discrete structures containing nuclear DNA 23 pairs 46 in humans nuclear DNA in cell nucleus eukaryotic organisms Homologous 1 each from mother father Gene sequence of DNA that carries info for protein synthesis at a particular location locus plural loci on a chromosome Allele alternate forms of a gene Diploid full complement of chromosomes somatic cells Haploid half set of chromosomes gametes Crossover recombination during meiosis exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes F 21 M 22 11 9 28 2017 Crossover recombination during meiosis exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes F M 23 Why is crossover recombination important 24 12 9 28 2017 Gene contributing to eye color F M Crossover produces new combinations of variation among alleles Gene contributing to hair color 25 Functions of DNA 2 Protein Synthesis 26 13 9 28 2017 Proteins are amino acid chains If there is a job to be done in the molecular world of our cells usually that job is done by a protein A protein hormone which helps to regulate your blood sugar levels Examples hormones acting as messengers enzymes speeding up reactions antibodies fighting foreign invaders structures in muscles hair ligaments fingernails the lens of your eye 27 Two Steps in protein synthesis transcription translation 28 14 9 28 2017 Transcription synthesis of mRNA from DNA DNA molecule unzips between bases Messenger RNA mRNA molecule is built by adding freefloating RNA nucleotides to the DNA strand mRNA strand then breaks away and DNA zips up 29 RNA Different from DNA Single stranded molecule Contains a different sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose Uses the base URACIL instead of THYMINE A U in RNA not A T other bases the same Integral part of protein synthesis 30 15 9 28 2017 31 Translation synthesis of an amino acid sequence from the mRNA template Every three mRNA bases codon is matched with its Transfer RNA tRNA anticodon Each tRNA anti codon is attached to an amino acid Thus mRNA strands are translated into tRNA to create amino acid chains 32 16 9 28 2017 Only 20 Different Amino Acids differing only in the beige part Protein Function The protein s function is a result of the 3D shape of its unique 2D linear combination of amino acids 33 Introns and Exons Introns grey Exons different colors 34 17 9 28 2017 Regulatory Sequences Example of the production of lactase Repressor region Example Bound in presence of glucose Activator region Example Bound in presence of lactose Transcription happens when activator bound and repressor unbound 35 Gene Regulation and Cell Differentiation All cells have the same DNA code Cell differentiation Gene expression Ex neurons Ex eye formation on fly antennae Pax6 gene 36 18 9 28 2017 Epigenetics Evolutionary Developmental Genetics 37 Questions 38 19 9 28 2017 ALA 3 What is the appropriate sequence of events in protein synthesis a DNA transcribed to mRNA mRNA translated to amino acids by tRNA in cell nucleus Folding of amino acid polypeptide chain creates the protein b RNA transcribed to DNA DNA leaves cell nucleus DNA translated to an amino acid sequence in the ribosome Folding of amino acid polypeptide chain creates the protein c DNA transcribed to mRNA mRNA leaves cell nucleus mRNA translated to amino acids by tRNA in the ribosome Folding of amino acid polypeptide chain creates protein d DNA leaves cell nucleus DNA transcribed to mRNA in the ribosome mRNA translated to amino acids by tRNA in the mitochondrion Folding of amino acid polypeptide chain to create protein e DNA transcribed to tRNA tRNA leaves cell nucleus Folding of amino acid polypeptide chain creates protein tRNA translated to amino acids by 39 mRNA 20


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