U of M ANTH 1001 - Lecture 5 9-19-17 Genetics 1 (20 pages)

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Lecture 5 9-19-17 Genetics 1



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Lecture 5 9-19-17 Genetics 1

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Pages:
20
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents

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9 28 2017 Course Business Nisarg s new office hours Mon 3 30 4 30pm office hour Mon 4 30 5 30pm study hour 2 1 9 28 2017 9 19 17 Genetics The Biology of Variation Inheritance 3 Today s Objectives What Darwin did not know DNA What it is and what it does Mendelian genetics How is genetic variation achieved How is it passed to future generations 4 2 9 28 2017 Do NOT Panic When in doubt about how much to learn given the detail in the textbook use this lecture as a guide We are learning what you need to know of genetics to understand evolutionary theory not to become a geneticist or biochemist 5 Where is DNA and what does it do 6 3 9 28 2017 Cell Biology cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus genetic material other genetic material 7 Cell Biology cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus genetic material other genetic material 8 4 9 28 2017 Cell Biology cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus genetic material other genetic material 9 Cell Biology cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus genetic material other genetic material 10 5 9 28 2017 2 types of cells Somatic cells Contain the full compliment of chromosomes in humans 23 pairs Gametes Egg Sperm Contain only one of each of the 23 chromosomes 11 2 types of cells Somatic cells Gametes sex cells Egg produced in female humans while she is still a fetus in the womb Sperm produced by human adult males continually 12 6 9 28 2017 What is DNA DNA Nucleotides form a chain phosphate and sugar backbone Nucleotide bases adenine thymine cytosine guanine Two strands twist around each other forming a double helix 13 2 complementary strands of DNA join at the bases which form weak bonds to create the double stranded DNA molecule adenine thymine cytosine guanine P P S A T S P P S A T S P P S G C S P P S T A S P P S C G S P P S G C S 14 7 9 28 2017 Any questions so far 15 Reproduction of cells is accomplished through cell division Why do cells need to reproduce 16 8 9 28 2017 Functions of DNA 1 Replicates Itself Error rate of 1 per billion base pairs Human genome has 3 billion thus 3 errors per cell division What do you call a replication error when it happens in a developing sperm or egg cell 17 DNA coils into Chromosomes before cell division 18 9 9 28 2017 Replication during Mitosis generates duplicate cells cell division for somatic cells results in two identical daughter cells diploid condition is retained 19 Replication during Meiosis produces haploid gametes cell division for gametes results in four haploid daughter cells 20 10 9 28 2017 Some definitions DNA deoxyribonucleic acid molecule responsible for carrying genetic information Chromosomes discrete structures containing nuclear DNA 23 pairs 46 in humans nuclear DNA in cell nucleus eukaryotic organisms Homologous 1 each



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