U of M ANTH 1001 - Lecture 7 9-26-17 The Modern Synthesis (22 pages)

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Lecture 7 9-26-17 The Modern Synthesis



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Lecture 7 9-26-17 The Modern Synthesis

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22
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents
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9 28 2017 Course business Midterm 1 Tuesday Oct 10th 50 multiple choice true false matching questions Bring a pencil If you re registered with the Disability Resource Center and plan to take the exam at the DRC you must make an appointment with DRC 7 days before the exam There are 2 chapters assigned in InQuizitive this week 2 1 9 28 2017 The Modern Synthesis Answers Darwin s Critics 1 Question Before Mendel Darwin was considered wrong because blending inheritance would remove all variation After Mendel inheritance was understood as particulate so how can evolution result from gradual changes 1 Answer Continuous polygenic traits are controlled by many genes by way of the proteins for which they code Genes are particulate but together produce blended phenotypic traits 3 The Modern Synthesis Answers Darwin s Critics 2 How does Natural Selection produce variants not currently existing 4 2 9 28 2017 How do you get a Chihuahua from a wolf 5 The Modern Synthesis Answers Darwin s Critics 2 Answer Masked variation in polygenic traits 6 3 9 28 2017 Figure 03 08 7 Figure 03 08 8 4 9 28 2017 Figure 03 11 Selection for Variation beyond Extant Range oil in corn in a 1896 experiment 9 The Modern Synthesis also explains the constraints on natural selection 3 Correlated reaction to selection 3 10 5 9 28 2017 Figure 03 17 11 6 9 28 2017 The Modern Synthesis explains the Constraints on Natural Selection 4 Disequilibrium phylogenetic inertia not enough time yet to become adaptive given the new environment 13 Examples of the causation in Natural Selection Eating Nutrition Sex Reproduction 14 7 9 28 2017 The Modern Synthesis explains the Constraints on Natural Selection 5 Developmental constraints you just can t do that We will never have a wolf on wheels 15 Human Males cannot be fertile and breast feed too 16 8 9 28 2017 ALA 3 question 1 What is the appropriate sequence of events in protein synthesis a DNA transcribed to mRNA mRNA translated to amino acids by tRNA in cell nucleus Folding of amino acid polypeptide chain creates the protein b RNA transcribed to DNA DNA leaves cell nucleus DNA translated to an amino acid sequence in the ribosome Folding of amino acid polypeptide chain creates the protein c DNA transcribed to mRNA mRNA leaves cell nucleus mRNA translated to amino acids by tRNA in the ribosome Folding of amino acid polypeptide chain creates protein d DNA leaves cell nucleus DNA transcribed to mRNA in the ribosome mRNA translated to amino acids by tRNA in the mitochondrion Folding of amino acid polypeptide chain to create protein e DNA transcribed to tRNA tRNA leaves cell nucleus Folding of amino acid polypeptide chain creates protein tRNA translated to amino acids by 17 mRNA Mechanisms of evolution If we define evolution as a change in allele frequencies through time then there are 4 mechanisms of evolution that will produce and redistribute variation Natural selection Mutation Gene flow Genetic drift 18 9 9 28 2017 Mutation Any alteration in the genetic material The only source of new alleles 19 W Perry Conway Corbis Gene flow Movement of genetic material from one population to another How is this accomplished How will gene flow affect variability 20 10 9 28 2017 Increase or decrease variability 21 Increase or decrease variability 22 11 9 28 2017 Gene flow increases variation within a population but decreases variation between populations 23 Genetic drift Sampling error A change in allele frequencies due to chance Will this have its greatest effect on large or small populations How will genetic drift affect variation 24 12 9 28 2017 How will genetic drift affect variation in each of these four populations TIME 1 25 How will genetic drift affect variation in each of these four populations TIME 2 26 13 9 28 2017 How will genetic drift affect variation in each of these four populations TIME 3 27 Genetic drift reduces variation within populations increases variation between populations TIME 4 28 14 9 28 2017 Fixity 29 Founder Effect a special kind of genetic drift Difference in allele frequencies in a founding population compared to those of the source population Ellis Van Creveld syndrome Amish 30 15 9 28 2017 The effects of evolutionary mechanisms on variation Natural Selection reduces variability within populations its effect on variation among populations depends on the nature and pervasiveness of the selective pressure Mutation increases variation within and among populations Gene Flow increases variation within populations reduces variation between populations Genetic Drift reduces variation within populations increases variation between populations Hint learn this 31 G Mendel Since the Modern Synthesis DNA studies of all life on the planet continue to support Darwin s 5 Theories S Wright R Franklin R Fisher JBS Haldane E Mayr T Dobzhansky 32 Watson Crick 16 9 28 2017 Darwin s 5 theories regarding evolution 1 Species change evolution as such 2 All organisms share a common ancestry 3 Evolution is gradual 4 Evolution leads to speciation 5 Evolution occurs through Natural Selection 33 Darwin s 5 theories regarding evolution 1 Species change evolution as such 2 All organisms share a common ancestry 3 Evolution is gradual 4 Evolution leads to speciation 5 Evolution occurs through Natural Selection 34 17 9 28 2017 Hillis Zwickl Gutell s rRNA tree for 3 000 species Science 2003 300 1692 1697 35 36 18 9 28 2017 Evolution of Complex Organs also shows Common Descent 37 Darwin s 5 theories regarding evolution 1 Species change evolution as such 2 All organisms share a common ancestry 3 Evolution is gradual 4 Evolution leads to speciation 5 Evolution occurs through Natural Selection 38 19 9 28 2017 The Evolution of Complex Adaptations Continuous vs discontinuous variation Methinks it like a weasel 39 The Evolution of Complex Adaptations Trial 1 WDLMNLT DTJBSWIRZREZLMQCO P 10 MDLDMNLS ITJISWHRZREZ MECS P 20 MELDINLS IT ISWPRKE Z WECSEL 30 METHINGS IT ISWLIKE B WECSEL 40 METHINKS IT IS LIKE I WEASEL 43 METHINKS IT IS LIKE A WEASEL 40 20 9 28 2017 Selection for Intermediate Steps Intermediate forms can be adaptive Living mollusks show steps in eye evolution Evolution is the great tinkerer not an engineer 41 Complex organs still show constraints on adaptation Local vs Optimal Adaptations 42 21 9 28 2017 Convergent Evolution Darwin s 5 theories regarding evolution 1 Species change evolution as such 2 All organisms share a common ancestry 3 Evolution is gradual 4 Evolution leads to speciation 5


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