U of M ANTH 1001 - Lecture 13 10-24-17 Primate Mating Systems 1 (20 pages)

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Lecture 13 10-24-17 Primate Mating Systems 1



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Lecture 13 10-24-17 Primate Mating Systems 1

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Pages:
20
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents
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ANTH1001 Human Evolution G Tostevin Spring 2016 10 24 17 Primate Social Behavior Mating Systems 1 Topics for Today What is the framework for primate social behavior Mating Systems Mating systems as a result of overlapping male female strategies Why be social and form groups at all Inclusive Fitness Kin Selection Effects of Social Hierarchies in primates 2 1 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus ANTH1001 Human Evolution G Tostevin Spring 2016 Mating systems Monogamy Mono 1 gamos marriage union One male one female Polygyny Poly many gyny women One male multiple females Polyandry Poly many andry men Multiple males one female Polygynandry Multiple males multiple females 3 Figure 07 26 Polygynandry multi male 4 2 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus ANTH1001 Human Evolution G Tostevin Spring 2016 Resource defense polygyny 5 Female defense polygyny 6 3 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus ANTH1001 Human Evolution G Tostevin Spring 2016 Why engage in same sex competition inter sex mate choice 1 Which sex has the highest reproductive potential number of offspring in a lifetime given its mandatory parental investment 2 Which sex has the highest reproductive variance range of numbers of offspring across the sex Given the above each sex has a different strategy for maximizing its reproductive success given its different mandatory investment 7 Why engage in same sex competition inter sex mate choice What are the Human Female Constraints on Reproductive Success RS mammalian in general Age of menarche Age of menopause Diet and fertility High costs of cycling pregnancy lactation 8 4 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus ANTH1001 Human Evolution G Tostevin Spring 2016 Why engage in same sex competition inter sex mate choice What are the Male Constraints Where are the females 9 Why engage in same sex competition inter sex mate choice What are the Male Constraints Where are the females Because we are mammals with the high costs of internal gestation and lactation male RS has a greater variance than female RS 888 vs 69 Because we are mammals with the high costs of internal gestation and lactation females are more choosy than males 10 5 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus ANTH1001 Human Evolution G Tostevin Spring 2016 An argument used to justify male philandry cheating Cornell Study 11 Females are not always the Choosiest Sex 12 6 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus ANTH1001 Human Evolution G Tostevin Spring 2016 How Do Primates Form Mating Systems Distribution of Resources patchy 13 Females map onto Resources 14 7 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus ANTH1001 Human Evolution G Tostevin Spring 2016 Females map onto Resources 15 Males map onto Females 16 8 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus ANTH1001 Human Evolution G Tostevin Spring 2016 Distribution of Resources even 17 Females map onto Resources 18 9 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus ANTH1001 Human Evolution G Tostevin Spring 2016 Males map onto Females 19 Males map onto Females 20 10 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus ANTH1001 Human Evolution G Tostevin Spring 2016 Given twins needing paternal investment among Tamarins Marmosets fathers accepting polyandry is understandable Polygamy is not just for males But why are the mature siblings acting as Sibling Nannies when they could form their own family Why are there multiple 21 fathers Darwinian Fitness Direct Fitness the individual s fitness Indirect Fitness fitness gained through relatives 22 11 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus ANTH1001 Human Evolution G Tostevin Spring 2016 Darwinian Fitness including inclusive fitness The sum of an individual s reproductive success through its offspring plus its influence on its relatives reproductive success devalued in proportion to the degree of relatedness of the relatives W D Hamilton 1964 Kin Selection 23 ALA 8 part 2 Why did J B S Haldane one of the fathers of the Modern Synthesis say I would give my life for three brothers or nine cousins 24 12 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus ANTH1001 Human Evolution Kin selection or altruism rb c G Tostevin Spring 2016 Hamilton s Rule r coefficient of relatedness between actor and recipients probability that two individuals will share the same allele from a common ancestor b sum of benefits to individuals impacted by r degree of relatedness behavior times b benefit has to be greater than c cost c fitness cost to individual performing behavior Hamilton s Rule rb c More closely related individuals higher r can afford more costly acts of altruism 26 13 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus ANTH1001 Human Evolution G Tostevin Spring 2016 Kin Selection Ground Squirrel Alarm Calling Adult Females Adult Males Expected Young Females Observed Young Males 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Percentage of Animals Giving Alarm Call 27 The Problem with Group Level Explanations Altruism Must ultimately favor the individual not the group to evolve Cheaters entering the group via gene flow Group level explanations do not fit our understanding of evolutionary theory 28 14 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus ANTH1001 Human Evolution G Tostevin Spring 2016 Kin Selection is a better explanation W D Hamilton 1964 Not all members of a group are equally related Related individuals often cluster Altruism can evolve through kin selection 29 Kin Selection through inclusive fitness explains Sibling Nannies Brothers teaming up to take over a pride brother cuckoldry Altruistic alarm calls Eusociality among Naked Mole Rats 30 15 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus ANTH1001 Human Evolution G Tostevin Spring 2016 Given Inclusive Fitness why would you want to hang around your relatives and compete with them for food other resources 31 Why Do Most Primates Form Groups 1 Resource defense model Access to food Large groups are better than smaller groups 2 Predation defense model Larger groups suffer less predation than smaller groups These two models work better with different types of primates Resource defense with arboreal fruiteaters Predation defense with terrestrial monkeys 32 16 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus ANTH1001 Human Evolution G Tostevin Spring 2016 Beyond alarm calling how does kin selection work in primate societies 33 Kin Selection often works through Dominance Hierarchies both sexes have them Female yellow baboons in Amboseli National Park Kenya transfer their rank to their daughters 34 17 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus


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