U of M ANTH 1001 - Lecture 2 9-5-17 Darwins Theories (24 pages)

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Lecture 2 9-5-17 Darwins Theories



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Lecture 2 9-5-17 Darwins Theories

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24
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents
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9 6 2017 Evolution Darwin s Theories DARWIN CHARLES ROBERT 1809 1882 2 1 9 6 2017 History of Evolutionary Thought before Darwin You have to know the past to understand the present Dr Carl Sagan 3 Three Paths Leading to the Recognition of Human Evolution 1 Explaining the Variation in Life Forms 2 Recognizing the Antiquity of the Planet 3 Recognizing the Antiquity of Humanity 4 2 9 6 2017 1 Explaining the Variation in Life Forms Aristotle 384 322 BC Father of Natural Science Scala Naturae Great Chain of Being Entrenched in the notion of Platonic idealism or theory of Forms 5 1 Explaining the Variation in Life Forms Adoption by the Christian church Each species is a perfect creation and unchanging essentialism God created humans above all animals Angels above humans 6 3 9 6 2017 2 Recognizing the Antiquity of the Planet Archbishop James Ussher 1581 1656 Genesis Begats Adam begat Seth Adam lived for 930 years Earth was created on Saturday October 22 4004 BC 6 00 PM 7 7 By the end of the Renaissance this left us with two obstacles to developing a scientific theory of evolution Young Age of the Earth Fixity of Species 8 8 4 9 6 2017 2 Recognizing the Antiquity of the Planet Georges Louis Leclerc Comte de Buffon 1707 1788 Cooling experiments Earth could be 3 4 million years old but certainly 75 000 Greatly pushed back the origin of the earth time Empirical studies point of creation Degeneration of life forms due to bad environments 9 9 2 Recognizing the Antiquity of the Planet Charles Lyell 1797 1875 Leading proponent of Uniformitarianism coined by James Hutton Gradualism of Geological processes Acquaintance of Darwin s Contributed to disproving the young Earth hypothesis through the geology of Mt Etna Copyright 2009 Pearson Education Inc 10 5 9 6 2017 2 Recognizing the Antiquity of the Planet Lord Kelvin William Thompson 1824 1907 Cooling body experiments Earth must be 100 million years old we now know it to be 4 5 billion years old 11 1 Explaining the Variation in Life Forms Carolus Linnaeus 17071778 Systema Naturae a hierarchical classification of life Taxonomy Linnaean hierarchy Binomial nomenclature of genus species Homo sapiens Copyright 2009 Pearson Education Inc 12 6 9 6 2017 1 Explaining the Variation in Life Forms Carolus Linnaeus 1707 1778 Systema Naturae a hierarchical Systema Naturae a hierarchical classification of life classification of life Taxonomy Unified classification system Rosa sylvestrishierarchy inodora seu canina Linnaean Rosa sylvestris alba cum rubore folio Binomial nomenclature of genus glabro species gorilla Binomial Homosystem sapiens still used First group humans with apes Whytowas Linnaeus contribution Humans aretoanimals important modern day Not quite an evolutionist evolutionary theory Wikipedia Creative Commons license Mnemonic Did King Phillip Cry Out For Goodness Sake 13 1 Explaining the Variation in Life Forms Georges Cuvier 1769 1832 Comparative Functional Anatomy demonstrating a carnivore i e a lion from its tooth Needed to address the increasing number of fossils of organisms that exist nowhere on the earth today Extinction Catastrophism eventually defeated by Lyell Bryce Canynon Utah Stephen Marshak 14 7 9 6 2017 1 Explaining the Variation in Life Forms Jean Baptiste Lamarck 1744 1829 First comprehensive scientific theory of evolution Mechanism Inheritance of acquired characteristics 1 Change in environment causes changes in behavior Relationship between environment organism a new idea 2 Changes developed within the lifetime of an individual are heritable Challenged the belief that species were immutable 15 15 1 Explaining the Variation in Life Forms Thomas Malthus 1766 1834 Populations have the capacity to increase exponentially This leads to overpopulation war famine disease etc Natural populations are kept in check by forces which kill off members of that population 16 8 9 6 2017 Questions 17 1 Explaining the Variation in Life Forms Charles Darwin 1809 1882 AKG Photo Researchers Inc Took a long time to find his niche minister doctor etc 1831 HMS Beagle sets sail with Darwin as naturalist Darwin brings books written by Lyell Malthus among others 1836 Beagle returns from trip around the world 1837 Darwin begins his first notebook on the transmutation of species 1855 Wallace writes a paper equivalent to Darwin s argument 1858 Darwin Wallace give a joint paper on species origins to the Linnaean Society 18 9 9 6 2017 1859 On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life Although both Darwin and Wallace independently theorized evolution by Natural Selection Darwin is the one who continued in this line of research 19 3 Recognizing the Antiquity of Humanity Jacques Boucher de Perthes 1788 1868 Father of Paleolithic Archaeology Excavations in the Somme Valley France Proved association of human made artifacts with extinct fauna animals c 1847 1858 The Industrial Age made the paleontological archaeological record hard to ignore 20 10 9 6 2017 1859 the Pivotal Year Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species British geologists John Prestwich Charles Lyell and the archaeologist John Evans visit the excavations of Boucher de Perthes and accept his claims for their antiquity Thomas Huxley correctly identifies the fossil specimen discovered in 1856 in the Neander Valley Germany as an extinct species of human we now call this fossil a Neanderthal 21 Artificial Selection For more than 10 000 years we ve selected traits that we find desirable purposefully influencing the breeding of domesticated animals Darwin s genius was in seeing that nature the environment food sources predators does the same thing in the present He called it Natural Selection The MAIN difference between the two is that Natural Selection does not have a long term goal unlike Artificial Selection Because of the uniformitarian extension of present processes during the long antiquity of life of Earth this led to his 5 Theories 22 11 9 6 2017 Darwin s 5 theories regarding evolution 1 2 3 4 5 Species change evolution as such All organisms share a common ancestry Evolution is gradual Evolution leads to speciation Evolution occurs through Natural Selection This is not ONE THEORY of evolution but SEVERAL THEORIES 23 Darwin s 5 theories 1 Species change over time Domestic plants and animals Some animals that once lived no longer exist Some extinct animals are similar to living animals e g mammoths Irish elk 24 12 9 6 2017 Many


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