U of M ANTH 1001 - Lecture 21 11-28-17 Early Homo (16 pages)

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Lecture 21 11-28-17 Early Homo



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Lecture 21 11-28-17 Early Homo

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Pages:
16
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents
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11 29 2017 Beginning of the Archaeological Record the Oldowan 2 6 mya Kada Gona Ethiopia 1 Diagnostic features of conchoidal fracture 2 1 11 29 2017 3 Oldowan technology 4 2 11 29 2017 Tool use is not so rare 5 But the Oldowan Tradition is the beginning of a defining aspect of the human adaptation Human life consists of ceaseless and varied interactions among people and myriad kinds of things Michael Schiffer The Material Life of Human Beings 1999 2 Culture is an essential part of the human adaptation and as much a part of human biology as bipedal locomotion or thick enamel on our molars Robert Boyd 6 3 11 29 2017 What are they using these sharp rocks for 7 8 4 11 29 2017 The aids to the wimpy dentition of a hominin 9 Earliest preserved wooden artifacts a platter at 0 79 mya at Gesher Benot Ya aqov Israel 10 5 11 29 2017 What one small stone flake can do 11 Bone marrow extraction by direct percussion 12 6 11 29 2017 Break patterns for bone marrow extraction Prehistoric Modern 13 Taphonomic Diagnostic Features Tooth Marks Shape U Depth shallow Internal surface smooth Stone Tool cut marks Shape V Depth deep Internal surface striated 14 7 11 29 2017 Microscopy of bone surfaces Modern stone tool cut marks Olduvai Gorge 1 9 mya 15 Microscopy of bone surfaces Olduvai Gorge 1 9 mya stone tool cut marks Olduvai Gorge 1 9 mya Carnivore tooth mark 16 8 11 29 2017 Or Power Confrontational Scavenging Would this strategy be pursued differently by females with infants than by males and adolescent females 17 Sketch by John Gurche Chimpanzee vs Human hand Note Finger tips apical tufts Length Curvature of chimpanzee fingers Shortness of chimpanzee thumb relative to the palm 18 9 11 29 2017 Importance of the Precision Power Grips for the human hand 19 Human vs Chimpanzee hand 20 10 11 29 2017 21 Kansi a bonobo flintknapping Initial trials throwing produced geological flakes Continued training flakes similar to Oldowan 22 11 11 29 2017 Positron Emission Tomography images of Nick Toth while knapping Stout et al 2000 Olduvai Gorge the earliest stone tools Oldowan tool industry Earliest cultural artifacts in the Gorge Attributed by Louis Leakey Nature 1959 to Zinjanthropus the early name for Paranthropus boisei 24 12 11 29 2017 Olduvai Gorge the earliest stone tools Homo habilis named in 1964 Olduvai Hominin 7 OH 7 25 ER1813 OH24 OH7 type Pushing Homo back in time Handy Man or Homo habilis 1977 Smaller teeth brain size 1 5x that of Australopiths 600 750 cc 26 13 11 29 2017 Figure 11 34 Early Homo dates between 2 4 1 6 mya KNM ER 1470 has Australopith face with molars the size of A africanus but with bigger brain KNM ER 1813 has more derived more modern traits of smaller face smaller teeth but also smaller brain 27 The Debate over Early Homo Lump Hypothesis Males with Australopith face and larger bodies females with more derived H erectus small face and smaller bodies Split Hypothesis too much dimorphism Bernard Wood Homo habilis i e OH7 OH 12 OH 16 OH 24 KNM ER1813 KNM ER1805 associated with more primitive postcrania Homo rudolphensis Lake Turkana Homo KNMER1470 1590 3732 1802 associated with more modern postcrania 28 14 11 29 2017 Remember Speciation is a not an 29 Early Homo locomotor adaptations still mixed Postcrania show arboreal intermembral index OH 62 OH7 type OH 8 foot More derived bipedal foot than A africanus Dentition shows chimp like growth rate 30 15 11 29 2017 For splitters such as Wood Collard early Homo falls within the genus Australopithecus based on their shared adaptive grade way of life A rudolphensis A habilis 31 Our current view of early human evolution Modern human Paranthropus boisei Paranthropus robustus Homo rudolfensis Homo habilis A sediba Paranthropus aethiopicus A garhi Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus anamensis Orrorin tugenensis 32 16


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