U of M ANTH 1001 - Lecture 20 11-28-17 The Robust Australopiths (26 pages)

Previewing pages 1, 2, 3, 24, 25, 26 of 26 page document View the full content.
View Full Document

Lecture 20 11-28-17 The Robust Australopiths



Previewing pages 1, 2, 3, 24, 25, 26 of actual document.

View the full content.
View Full Document
View Full Document

Lecture 20 11-28-17 The Robust Australopiths

100 views


Pages:
26
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents
Unformatted text preview:

11 29 2017 Course business Hand in Ape Genius ALA at the end of lecture Final exam Dec 19th 1 Chimpanzee 1 Modern human Australopithecus sediba Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus anamensis Orrorin tugenensis 2 2 1 11 29 2017 Probable Hominins various Genera Gracile Hominins Australopithecus Robusts Hominins Paranthropus P robustus P aethiopicus P boisei 3 What distinguishes the gracile Australopithecus from the robust Paranthropus 4 2 11 29 2017 Australopiths meaning any early hominin before Homo Australopithecus graciles Paranthropus robusts 5 Genus Paranthropus Orthognathic face Wide dish shaped face due to flying zygomatic arches Sagittal crest anteriorly placed Paranthropus robustus Australopithecus africanus 6 6 3 11 29 2017 Morphology of Paranthropus Huge molars Big molariform premolars Tiny incisors and canines Thick enamel Fortified mandible 7 7 8 8 To what function do all of these features relate P robustus Homo sapiens MASTICATION 4 11 29 2017 Heavy grinding and chewing wide face Temporalis Muscle Masseter Muscle Sagittal crest Orthognathic face 9 9 10 10 Grinding tough gritty foods not ripping tearing gripping with front teeth 5 11 29 2017 P robustus A africanus Remember the gracile and the robust Australopiths have the same body size Paranthropus masticatory system is the only robust thing about it 11 11 Two species of Paranthropus are very similar to each other P robustus S Africa P boisei E Africa 12 6 11 29 2017 Paranthropus robustus Swartkrans Kromdraai South Africa 2 0 1 5 Ma 530 c c 13 Paranthropus boisei East Turkana Kenya Olduvai Tanzania Konso Ethiopia 2 2 1 3 Ma 500 550 c c More robust than P robustus 14 7 11 29 2017 Basic distribution of early hominins East Africa A afarensis P boisei Hadar Olduvai Laetoli South Africa A africanus P robustus 15 15 How is the genus Paranthropus related to the earlier hominins Difficult to say since they are so derived 16 8 11 29 2017 Is Paranthropus one or multiple lineages Paranthropus boisei Paranthropus robustus Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus anamensis 17 17 Closely related Paranthropus Paranthropus boisei Paranthropus robustus tough grinding adaptation A africanus A afarensis A anamensis 18 18 9 11 29 2017 Polyphyletic Paranthropus boisei Paranthropus robustus tough grinding adaptation A africanus A afarensis A anamensis 19 19 Majority of evidence Paranthropus Paranthropus boisei Paranthropus robustus tough grinding adaptation A africanus A afarensis A anamensis 20 10 11 29 2017 The Black Skull Paranthropus aethiopicus Lake Turkana Kenya Laetoli Tanzania 2 6 2 3 Ma A afarensis 21 P aethiopicus P boisei 410 c c Marked prognathism Compount sagittal nuchal crest like A afarensis Sagittal crest anterior and posterior Large anterior and posterior dentition Molariform premolars Wide dish shaped face P aethiopicus 22 11 11 29 2017 Chimpanzee Next on All My Ancestors Paranthropus boisei Modern human Paranthropus robustus Paranthropus aethiopicus Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus anamensis Ardipithecus ramidus 23 23 Australopithecus garhi southern ape surprise Bouri Ethiopia 2 5 Ma Morphology 450 c c canines and premolars similar to Homo huge molars ape like arms and legs sagittal crest Stone tools 24 24 12 11 29 2017 Chimpanzee One interpretation Modern human Australopithecus garhi Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus anamensis Orrorin tugenensis 25 25 Does A garhi look more like A afarensis or P aethiopicus Kieran McNulty s view P aethiopicus A garhi A afarensis 26 26 13 11 29 2017 27 27 28 14 11 29 2017 Our current view of early human evolution Modern human Paranthropus boisei Paranthropus robustus A sediba Paranthropus aethiopicus A garhi Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus anamensis Orrorin tugenensis 29 P robustus Paranthropus Diet What the bleep did these guys eat 30 15 11 29 2017 Paranthropus to Australopithecus is NOT as a gorilla is to a chimp 31 Paranthropus vs Australopithecus dental wear pits vs scratches Hard seed eating monkeys are the best match for Paranthropus Chimps for Australopithecus 32 16 11 29 2017 Dietary Carbon Isotopes preserve in tooth enamel caused by different photosynthetic pathways C3 Photosynthesis leafs three carbon atoms in pathway Used in trees bushes C3 diet browsers C4 Photosynthesis grass four carbon atoms in pathway Used in grasses C4 diet grazers 33 Delta 13 C Ratio Standard Peedee belemnite PDB of South Carolina 13Carbon 12Carbon 34 17 11 29 2017 Fractionation of Stable Carbon Isotopes in C3 C4 plants by Trophic Level Relative decrease in 13C Relative increase in 13C 35 Pliocene Pleistocene Stable Carbon Isotopic Data 13C 12C ratio measurements of individual living examples of grazers zebras vs browsers giraffes chimps with best fit lines Sponheimer et al 2013 PNAS 36 18 11 29 2017 Pliocene Pleistocene Stable Carbon Isotopic Data 13C 12C ratio measurements of individual fossils Sponheimer et al 2013 PNAS 37 Australopiths during Pliocene Pleistocene move from C3 eaters to a mix of C3 C4 foods Sponheimer et al 2013 PNAS 38 19 11 29 2017 East African Paranthropus P aethiopicus P boisei become fully C4 eaters 39 Sponheimer et al 2013 PNAS The Paranthropus boisei trend is matched by a monkey genus that also went extinct save for the Gelada Gelada monkey Olive baboon Sponheimer et al 2013 PNAS 40 20 11 29 2017 Pliocene Pleistocene Stable Carbon Isotopic Data Sponheimer et al 2013 PNAS 41 Pliocene Pleistocene Stable Carbon Isotopic Data Sponheimer et al 2013 PNAS 42 21 11 29 2017 Southern African Stable Carbon Isotopic Data Eastern African P aethiopicus boisei Sponheimer et al 2013 PNAS 43 Southern African Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus Ate about 30 from C4 sources C4 could be from grass grass seeds or they ate animals that ate C4 grasses BUT teeth morphology wear is not that of a grazer or a carnivore If not meat why not insects especially given data on Pan diets 44 22 11 29 2017 Chimp Tool Use as Analogy for early hominin foraging processing C3 nut processing Ants termites as high quality food 45 46 23 11 29 2017 Swartkrans Digging Sticks experimental archaeology Ignore the break bevel Consistent orientation narrow striation widths match those on fossil Random orientation of wide striations 47 Termites can give the mixed C3 C4 signature of some Australopiths C4 C3 Sponheimer et al Journal of


View Full Document

Access the best Study Guides, Lecture Notes and Practice Exams

Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Lecture 20 11-28-17 The Robust Australopiths and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Lecture 20 11-28-17 The Robust Australopiths and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?