U of M ANTH 1001 - Final study guide (6 pages)

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Final study guide



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Final study guide

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Pages:
6
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents

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Human evolution Geological Epochs 65 54 mya First primates Eocene 54 34 mya First strepsirrhines 34 23 mya Oligocene Anthropoid radiation Miocene Hominoid radiation 23 5 0 mya 5 0 2 5 mya Pliocene Hominin radiation Pleistocene 2 5 0 1 mya 0 1 Holocene mya present The child skull radically changed then prevalent notions about human evolution in combining a centrally situated foramen magnum under the cranium and dentition of modern aspect with a small cranial capacity The discovery was contested because of 1 2 3 uncertainty surrounding the adult morphology of A Subsequent discoveries confirmed the place of A africanus in the human family tree The demonstrated that hominins acquired a bipedal gait before Bipedalism Cranium F M centrally situated under the cranium Postcranium Vertebral column with a and large lumbar vertebrae Pelvis with ilium bowl shape and stronger abductor muscles Hindlimb with a valgus knee enlarged femoral condyles a more robust ankle big toe aligned with other toes and two arches along the bottom of the foot Hypotheses concerning the evolution of bipedalism Unlikely allow hunting of grassland game Improved vigilance against predators and other threats Terrestrial feeding More impressive displays Provisioning by males for the females Likely Increased emphasis on USO s for consumption sun exposure However likely no single cause for the appearance of bipedalism Early hominin adaptations Cranium of C P3 honing complex Increase in size of dentition Reorientation of the dental arcade from shaped to parabolic in the degree of subnasal prognathism Increase in enamel Probable hominins None is fully accepted as an early hominin owing to inconclusive evidence about the presence of definitive bipedal adaptations Sahelanthropus mya Chad Orrorin mya Kenya Ardipithecus mya Ethiopia Australopiths Gracile vs robust variant Robust variant principally differs from the gracile variant in having a more robustly constructed cranium and mandible anterior dentition very small and an enlarged posterior dentition with very thick enamel Gracile and Robust and Locomotion positional repertoire with a skeleton that combines aspects of bipedalism with those consistent with arboreal locomotion Diet predominantly but occasionally supplemented by animal protein Australopiths likely used a variety of tools while engaging in extractive food behaviors on a level comparable to that of chimpanzees Other fast life history 1M 1F social organization Tool use Humans engage in more elaborate and complex 1 inter individual collaborations i e through triadic attention 2 transmission of knowledge i e through teaching permitting cultural transmission 3 tool using behaviors than chimps Introduction and use of a diverse toolkit by hominins replaces the need for anatomical adaptations to accommodate certain food extractive behaviors observed in other animals e g flesh cutting bone crushing digging weapons etc This has been called evolution Stone tool use Humans are not the



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