U of M ANTH 1001 - Lecture 24 12-12-17 Neanderthals (25 pages)

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Lecture 24 12-12-17 Neanderthals



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Lecture 24 12-12-17 Neanderthals

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Pages:
25
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents

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12 13 2017 1 Course Business Final exam Tuesday Dec 19th 6 30pm to 9 00pm Blegan Hall 255 same room as lecture 75 questions 30 older material 70 newer material since the last midterm Study guide posted Review sessions this week Grade disputes due by Dec 19th 1 12 13 2017 Homo sapiens sapiens Homo neanderthalensis Homo heidelbergensis Homo erectus Homo rudolfensis Homo habilis Paranthropus A garhi Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus anamensis 3 Topics Neanderthal Anatomy and Behavior Anatomy Robusticity climatic adaptation Diet Burial Care for conspecifics Material culture 4 2 12 13 2017 Neanderthals Gods or Monsters 5 History of discovery 1830 Engis cave Belgium child 1848 Forbes Quarry Gibraltar 1856 Feldhofer Cave Neander Tal valley Germany Herman Schaafhausen interpreted these bones as representing a race of primitive prehistoric people 6 3 12 13 2017 Marcellin Boule s reconstruction of the La Chapelle remains in 1911 influenced our image of Neanderthals for many decades Marcellin Boule s reconstruction 7 8 4 12 13 2017 Neanderthals are confined from Europe to Central Asia 9 Neanderthal cranial features 10 5 12 13 2017 Neanderthal morphology Average cranial capacity Female 1300 cc Male 1600 cc Above modern human average but not when scaled to body size Long low cranial vault Curved brow ridge 11 12 6 12 13 2017 Neanderthal morphology Occipital bun Large prognathic midface Cheek bones placed posteriorly relative to face Large nasal aperture Retromolar space Uniquely derived inner ear morphology 13 Modern Human Neanderthal 13 Neanderthal derived dental morphology taurodont molars 14 7 12 13 2017 Homo heidelbergensis in Europe on its way to Neanderthals 600 kya shows H heidelbergensis population in Europe differentiating towards Neanderthal features particularly the double arched supraorbital torus and midfacial prognathism 15 Neanderthal early Homo like life history NOT modern This Neanderthal who died at age 8 would have been fully mature 4 years earlier than a modern human Smith et al 2007 PNAS December 18 2007 16 8 12 13 2017 Robust postcrania Note wider pelvic basin in Neanderthal 17 Neanderthal vs Modern Hand Larger apical tufts on Neanderthals strenuous work 18 9 12 13 2017 Note more equal lengths of distal and proximal phalanx in Neanderthal Creates a stronger grasp on large objects poorer grasp at the finger tips 19 Neanderthal Body Proportions Arctic C Remember Bergmann s Allen s Rules 20 10 12 13 2017 Neanderthals as one form of the biological adaptation to the fluctuations of the Ice Age 21 Midfacial Prognathism Arctic adaptation to cold dry air To reduce drag make breathing more efficient Counter balance to occipital bun during running Genetic drift just a big nose Artifact of wider anterior dentition for tool use 22 11 12 13 2017 Midfacial Prognathism Arctic adaptation to cold dry air To reduce drag make breathing more efficient Counter balance to occipital bun during running Genetic drift just a



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