U of M ANTH 1001 - Lecture 19 11-21-17 The Gracile Hominins (29 pages)

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Lecture 19 11-21-17 The Gracile Hominins



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Lecture 19 11-21-17 The Gracile Hominins

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Pages:
29
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents

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11 22 2017 Probable Hominins various Genera Gracile Hominins Australopithecus Robust Hominins Paranthropus P robustus P aethiopicus P boisei 1 Australopithecus anamensis southern ape from the lake Kanapoi Allia Bay Kenya East Africa 4 2 3 9 Ma 2 2 1 11 22 2017 Australopithecus anamensis Earliest biped with certainty Morphology Reduced canines Loss of CP3 homing complex thicker enamel than chimp thinner than later Australopiths strongly built tibia both knee ankle showing bipedality BUT long curved fingers 3 3 Chimpanzee Modern human Australopithecus anamensis Orrorin tugenensis 4 4 2 11 22 2017 Australopithecus afarensis southern ape from the Afar Afar depression Ethiopia also in Laetoli Tanzania and Turkana basin Kenya East Africa 3 9 2 9 Ma 5 5 The Hadar find AL 288 1 called Lucy an Australopithecus afarensis 6 3 11 22 2017 Cranial shape and brain size 7 Dental comparison of Chimp A afarensis Human 7 Intermediate canines U shaped dental arcade more like chimp Thick enamel like human even thicker Much larger molars than either 8 8 4 11 22 2017 Notice the chimp like intermembral index Comparison of Modern human and A afarensis Chimp A afarensis 9 Human valgus knee with bicondylar or carrying angle 10 5 11 22 2017 Broad femoro tibial knee joint Proximal Tibia Distal Femur Chimpanzee Lucy Modern Human Chimpanzee Lucy Modern Human 11 Figure 05 21d 12 6 11 22 2017 3 5 mya Mary Leakey at Laetoli Tanzania 13 Analysis of the Laetoli Footprints Russel Tuttle s comparison with Machigenga people of Peru a bipedal striding gait Analysis of cadence suggests a shorter stride than modern Note slightly abducted big toe relative to foot on the left 14 7 11 22 2017 Figure 05 23 15 Humerus Quadrupeds have more robust humeri than bipeds weight bearing Bicipital grove Deep very muscular Shallow limited upper body strength A afarensis bicipital groove is deeper than that of modern humans if not as deep as African great apes 16 8 11 22 2017 Thorax Shape and Scapula Placement Scapular Adaptations for Suspensory Locomotion Human Chimpanzee 18 9 11 22 2017 A afarensis fossil from Dikika Ethiopia 3 3 ma 3 year old 19 Alemseged et al 2006 Dikika 1 1 G gorilla H sapiens Chimp P trog 20 10 11 22 2017 Australopithecus afarensis Morphology arboreal Morphology general 375 500 c c large procumbent incisors prognathic face megadonty very large molars and premolars with thick enamel cranially oriented scapular glenoid curved phalanges long toes high intermembral index Morphology terrestrial anteriorly placed downward directed foramen magnum distinct foot arch distinct valgus knee angle 21 Chimpanzee 21 Modern human Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus anamensis Orrorin tugenensis 22 22 11 11 22 2017 Topics Hypotheses for the origins of bipedality Last of the Gracile Australopiths Robust Australopiths Genus Paranthropus Dietary reconstructions of the Australopiths Australopiths Gracile genus Australopithecus Robust genus Paranthropus 23 Why bipedalism 1950s Bipedalism



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