U of M ANTH 1001 - Lecture 10 10-12-17 Modern Human Variation (24 pages)

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Lecture 10 10-12-17 Modern Human Variation



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Lecture 10 10-12-17 Modern Human Variation

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24
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents
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10 16 2017 1 Course Business Jefferson s Blood ALA Due next week Info in last week s lecture 2 1 10 16 2017 10 10 17 Modern Human Variation Part 2 3 ALA 6 Do you agree that race is a cultural construct as opposed to a biological construct Answer in a short paragraph 4 2 10 16 2017 Tasks for Today Human biological variation across the globe the meaning of the non existence of biological races The difference between genetic lineage history and race Cultural Construction of Race Ethnicity and Biological Niche Construction How does non biological race have a biologically real effect on people s health 5 Three Discrete Variants 6 3 10 16 2017 Portions of a spectrum appear discrete when viewed out of context 7 Colonial Period brings people together from the extremes rather than from adjacent locations in the spectrum the Historical Appearance of Scientific Racism 8 8 4 10 16 2017 Non existence of Biological Race 1 Races biological species No reproductive isolation 9 Non existence of Biological Race 2 Lewontin 1972 study of modern human populations more genetic variation within geographical populations 85 than between populations 15 10 5 10 16 2017 Non existence of Biological Race 3 Variation between human populations is HALF as large as the variation between chimpanzee populations 11 Non existence of Biological Race 4 Races biological subspecies the DNA evidence 12 6 10 16 2017 Even racists cannot agree on the number of races Linneaus 1735 4 American European Asiatic Negroid Buffon 1749 6 Laplander Tartar South Asiatic European Ethiopian American Blumenbach 1781 5 Caucasoid Mongoloid American Indian Ethiopian Malay Cuvier 1790 3 Caucasoid Mongoloid Negroid Coon et al 1950 30 The foregoing list of 30 races might be 10 or 50 Boyd 1963 6 early European European African Asiatic American Indian Australoid Coon 1965 5 Caucasoid Mongoloid Australoid Congoid Capoid 13 The Race Concept Africa 14 7 10 16 2017 Race is thus a cultural construction not a biological construction 15 One can still detect lineage history within that 15 inter population variation BUT this history does not make subspecies or races because the variation is insignificant compared to the intra population variation LINEAGE HISTORY ESSENTIAL TYPES OF HUMANS OR EVEN GEOGRAPHICALLYCONTIGUOUS INDIVIDUALS IN THE PAST 16 8 10 16 2017 World Jewish Congress The Lemba ethnic group from southern Africa with half of their Y chromosomes shared with Semitic populations rather than sub Saharan populations 17 Nuclear DNA Mitochondrial mtDNA Mostly Coding Mostly Noncoding Mostly adaptation a little history Mostly lineage history 18 9 10 16 2017 SNP Analysis Single nucleotide polymorphism Ordering or clustering samples individuals into lineages by the commonalities and uniquenesses in the sequence of nucleotides A C T G 19 10 10 16 2017 53 Complete mitochondrial genomes Non recombining part of 1062 Y chromosomes Figure 14 16 21 Forster 2004 mtDNA at 2 0 kya 11 10 16 2017 Forster 2004 mtDNA at 15 2 kya Forster 2004 mtDNA at 20 15 kya 12 10 16 2017 Forster 2004 mtDNA at 30 20 kya Forster 2004 mtDNA at 60 30 kya 13 10 16 2017 Forster 2004 mtDNA at 80 60 kya Forster 2004 mtDNA at 200 100 kya 14 10 16 2017 This is the ONLY real map mtDNA at 2 0 ka Remember there was likely no recognized group of people that equates to a Haplogroup 15 10 16 2017 Boyd Silk p 393 A popular political statement now is There is no such thing as race I wonder what people think when they hear this They would have to suppose that the speaker if he were dropped by parachute into downtown Nairobi would be unable to tell by looking around him whether he was in Nairobi or Stockholm This could only damage his credibility The visible differences between different populations tell everyone that there is something here Alice Brues Discover magazine p 60 31 Boyd Silk p 393 But our intuitions sometimes lead us astray Our eyes tell us that the Earth is flat but it is really a sphere Our intuition tells us that a bullet fired horizontally from a rifle will hit the ground long after a bullet dropped from the muzzle at the same instant yet in reality they will hit the ground at the same time Our mind tells us that it is impossible for an elephant to have descended from a shrewlike insectivore even though that is exactly what happened The intuition that race is real is also an illusion 32 16 10 16 2017 An individual is affected by their lineage history and genetic inheritance that may originate with a population that lived in a given selective environment Can you think of any examples think sickle cell alleles in malarial regions or lactase production with dairying BUT that lineage history may have LITTLE to do with their self described affiliation 33 Implications of Racial Ascription i e RACISM Racial identity is a cultural construct with little to do with the variation in biological traits between individuals The more obvious the phenotypic differences the greater the chances of someone challenging an ethnic or racial affiliation A cultural construct with a potentially HUGE biological consequence 34 17 10 16 2017 Niche Construction By changing one s environment one can change the selection pressures facing you your kin within your life time 35 Remember how natural selection works 1 Variation in a trait 2 Inheritance of the trait Niche Construction changes 3 Variants of the trait cause differential the environment s ability to reproductive success cause differential reproductive success given the individual s traits 36 18 10 16 2017 Flexibility of Race Biological Niche Construction By changing one s environment one can change the selection pressures facing you your kin By changing one s racial affiliation or ascription you are changing selection pressures because you are changing the criteria by which people judge you the perceptions they use against you Race an ascribed status mostly dictated by the society Ethnicity a self ascribed status mostly chosen by the individual 37 Despite not being meaningful biological units race and ethnicity have real biological effects on people s lives 38 19 10 16 2017 Given the health disparities measured between races in America can the biological reality of race be denied Infant mortality in the United States 1995 2004 by race and ethnicity Data source National Center for Health Statistics 2007 39 What exactly is being inherited The environment or the genes Which is causing the health problems 40 20 10 16 2017 Why is stress bad for you Stressful


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