U of M ANTH 1001 - Lecture 11 10-17-17 Primates (15 pages)

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Lecture 11 10-17-17 Primates



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Lecture 11 10-17-17 Primates

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Pages:
15
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents
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ANTH1001 Human Evolution Lecture by Rutger Jansma Spring 2016 1 Course Business Midterm 1 scores Mean 39 5 SD 6 4 Highest score 49 Lowest score 22 90th percentile 46 4 75th percentile 44 3 50th percentile 40 5 25th percentile 35 5 10th percentile 30 3 2 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus 1 ANTH1001 Human Evolution Lecture by Rutger Jansma Spring 2016 The Primates 2 23 17 3 Topics for Today Why do we study primates How does one identify a primate What are some primate dietary adaptations How do primates locomote move around How do we classify group primates What are the different kinds of primates Continue with the living laboratory 4 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus 2 ANTH1001 Human Evolution Lecture by Rutger Jansma Spring 2016 Why do we Study Primates Humans are primates Primate diversity allows us to examine how natural selection shapes morphology and behavior Understanding these rules will allow us to better reconstruct the adaptive pressures important during early human evolution 5 Primate Adaptations 6 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus 3 ANTH1001 Human Evolution Lecture by Rutger Jansma Spring 2016 What is a Primate What do all of these animals have in common 7 The only shared derived trait in the skeleton of all primates petrosal auditory bulla Primate Petrosal Ectotympanic Dog University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus 8 4 ANTH1001 Human Evolution Lecture by Rutger Jansma Spring 2016 Anything else Hard to diagnose primate features tend to be primitive and generalized Only primates however have a suite of these certain features More useful to discuss evolutionary trends of modern primates 9 Evolutionary Trends Among the Primates Generalized dentition Emphasis on vision over olfaction Skeleton adapted for arboreal locomotion Slow life history Behavioral emphasis on close social bonds 10 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus 5 ANTH1001 Human Evolution Lecture by Rutger Jansma Spring 2016 Generalized dentition All primates have the same 4 kind of teeth incisors canines premolars molars Dental formula Upper I C P M Lower I C P M 11 Emphasis on vision instead of olfaction Forward facing eyes Color vision Shortened snout Dog Primates Lemur Monkey Squirrel University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus Primate 12 6 ANTH1001 Human Evolution Lecture by Rutger Jansma Spring 2016 Skeleton adapted for arboreal locomotion Grasping hands and feet Nails instead of claws Clavicle 13 Slow life history Long gestation period Small litter size 1 2 offspring Long lifespan Body mass Litter size Age at sexual maturity Maximum lifespan in captivity Margay Capuchin 4 kg 3 9 kg 1 2 1 12 18 months 7 years 24 54 14 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus 7 ANTH1001 Human Evolution Lecture by Rutger Jansma Spring 2016 Behavioral emphasis on close social bonds Large brain Strong mother offspring bonds Gregarious and social animals Increased child dependency Increased parenting behavior 15 Summary of Primate Traits Primates combine 1 A primitive generalized body form Generalized dentition 5 digits per hand Clavicles 2 Several anatomical and behavioral specializations Forward facing eyes Reduced sense of smell Grasping hands and feet Nails instead of claws Slow life histories Usually single births Big brains 16 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus 8 ANTH1001 Human Evolution Lecture by Rutger Jansma Spring 2016 Primate Anatomy 17 Skeleton 18 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus 9 ANTH1001 Human Evolution Lecture by Rutger Jansma Spring 2016 Diet INSECTS FRUIT LEAVES Insectivore Frugivore Folivore Small Large Small Tall spiky and broad at the bottom Low and rounded Tall sharp and narrow Incisor Size Molar Cusp Shape Intestines Simple Long small intestine Complex stomach or enlarged large intestine 19 Primate Diet Body Size Correlated High nutritional yield Insects Fruits Gums Low nutritional yield Leaves Grass University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus 20 10 ANTH1001 Human Evolution Lecture by Rutger Jansma Spring 2016 Locomotion Positional repertoire how an organism moves and holds its body while resting Quadruped Locomotion the act or power of moving from place to place Posture the position of an organism s body when standing or sitting 1 2 Clinger Brachiation Knuckle walker Orthograde Pronograde 21 Posture Pronograde Long vertebral column Ribcage long narrow Scapula on the side Limited range of motion monkey Orthograde Short vertebral column Ribcage short broad Scapula on the back Full range of motion ape 22 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus 11 ANTH1001 Human Evolution Lecture by Rutger Jansma Spring 2016 PRONOGRADE ORTHOGRADE Walk on palms Longer tail Longer curved fingers Glenoid fossa titled upward Longer curved fingers Arms much longer than legs ARBOREAL Glenoid fossa faces laterally Arms slightly longer than legs Shorter straighter fingers Walk on palms toes Shorter tail Shorter straighter fingers TERRESTRIAL 23 Primate Evolution Taxonomy 24 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus 12 ANTH1001 Human Evolution Lecture by Rutger Jansma Spring 2016 Grades or Clades Grade a taxon united by a level of morphological and or physiological complexity rather than phylogeny Clade a group consisting of its species and all its descendants and united by a set of shared derived features 25 On the Nose Strepsirrhini Haplorhini Inward turning nose wet nosed primates Includes lemurs and lorises Single or simple nose dry nosed primates Includes tarsiers monkeys and apes Rhinarium Philtrum 26 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus 13 ANTH1001 Human Evolution Lecture by Rutger Jansma Spring 2016 On the Nose Platyrrhini Catarrhini Flat nose Includes New World monkeys Downward nose Includes Old World monkeys and apes 27 New View Prosimians Monkeys Apes Humans Great Apes New World Old World Lesser Lemurs Tarsiers Orangutan Gorillas Monkeys Monkeys apes Lorises Chimps Humans 28 University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus 14 ANTH1001 Human Evolution Lecture by Rutger Jansma Spring 2016 Primate Clades Primates Strepsirrhines Haplorhines Tarsiers Anthropoids Platyrrhines Catarrhines OWM Apes New World Old World Lesser Lemurs Tarsiers Orangutan Monkeys Monkeys apes Lorises Gorillas Chimps Humans 29 Summary of Primate Taxonomy Strepsirrhines Lemurs Lorises Bushbabies Haplorhines Tarsiers Anthropoids Platyrrhines New World monkeys Catarrhines Old World monkeys and apes Cercopithecoids monkeys Hominoids apes Lesser apes gibbons Great apes humans and others 30 University


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