U of M ANTH 1001 - Lecture 15 10-31-17 Human foragers (15 pages)

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Lecture 15 10-31-17 Human foragers



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Lecture 15 10-31-17 Human foragers

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Pages:
15
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents

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11 1 2017 10 31 17 Humans as just another primate species Hunter Gatherers 1 Topics for Today Understanding the life of a hunter gatherer as a human vs as a chimpanzee Central place foraging Reciprocal altruism Human mate choices panhuman universals vs cultural specifics Diversity among human mating systems The human pair bond 2 1 11 1 2017 Why study Human Hunter Gatherers What are the selective constraints acting on humans living as hunter gatherers What makes humans unique as primates compared to other hunter gatherers 3 Hunting and gathering or Foraging Living off of wild resources Until 10 000 years ago how all people lived Until 5 000 years ago how 90 of people lived Today how very few people live and they are in the most marginal environments Homo sapiens show up 200 000 years ago 4 2 11 1 2017 Contemporary Forager Groups Ache and other groups Rain forests South America Agta Philippines Inuit Arctic areas Australian aborigines Western Desert Hadza Savanna woodlands Tanzania Efe Pygmy foragers and Lese Village horticulturists Ituri Forest Congo Bushmen Ju hoansi Kung Basarwa San Kalahari Arid Lands southern Africa 5 Ju Hoansi of the Kalahari Namibia Botswana South Africa 6 3 11 1 2017 Mobility 1 Residential mobility over very large yearly home range 2 Central place foraging each day with delayed consumption innovation of logistic mobility 3 Fission Fusion of nuclear families based on seasonality of food water not like Pan s daily fission fusion 7 Kalahari in dry season foragers clump around permanent waterholes n ore 8 4 11 1 2017 Sexual Division of Labor Sharing food 9 Mongongo nuts the staple of the diet 10 5 11 1 2017 Women Gather Plant Foods high diversity and quality over 100 species of plants compared to low quality of agricultural diets but high quantity 11 Foraging with Children you must carry the child as well as the food 12 6 11 1 2017 13 14 7 11 1 2017 Hunting for Meat Men hunt More protein higher calories than plants BUT less reliable due to low density of this scarce resource Must share hunting success or die 15 Foragers rarely experience mass starvation events but there is daily uncertainty in the food supply No long term storage of surplus means little ability to use surpluses for social favors Therefore no specialization of skill sets 16 8 11 1 2017 If no investment in things you invest in PEOPLE Hxaro Exchange System 17 Being Social Minnesota Nice and Altruism Nice is Nice the Group Selection Argument Wynne Edwards Nice is often Nepotism the Kin Selection argument Hamilton I ll be nice to you if you are nice to Me the Reciprocal Altruism argument Robert Trivers 18 9 11 1 2017 Conditions for Reciprocal Altruism Dracula was a nice guy Reciprocal Altruism in Vampire Bats 1 2 3 the opportunity to interact often better in longer lived organisms with low dispersal rate the ability to keep track of support given and



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