U of M ANTH 1001 - Lecture 18 11-21-17 The Early Hominins (17 pages)

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Lecture 18 11-21-17 The Early Hominins



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Lecture 18 11-21-17 The Early Hominins

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Pages:
17
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents
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11 22 2017 1 Course Business Midterm 2 descriptive stats Group Size 47 Mean 37 1 Standard Deviation 4 9 Variance 24 0 Highest Possible Score 50 Highest Obtained Score 49 Lowest Obtained Score 27 Range of Scores 23 90th Percentile Score 42 8 75th Percentile Score 41 0 50th Percentile Score Median 37 4 25th Percentile Score 33 8 10th Percentile Score 30 1 2 1 11 22 2017 The Early Probable Hominins and Gracile Australopiths 3 Topics for Today The earliest possible bipeds The earliest positively bipedal taxa the gracile Australopiths Genus Australopithecus 4 2 11 22 2017 Earliest probable Hominins 7 5 million yeas ago Hominin adaptive radiation 4 1 million P robustus P aethiopicus P boisei 5 Play the Paleoanthropological version of CLUE looking for the different characters in the narrative Who species name With what locomotor dietary and behavioral adaptations Where geographic area habitat coverage When time range 6 3 11 22 2017 Probable Hominins various Genera Gracile Hominins Australopithecus Robust Hominins Paranthropus P robustus P aethiopicus P boisei 7 The Earliest Probable Hominins Gorilla Pan Homo LCA last common ancestor shared between Homo and Pan Miocene ape 8 4 11 22 2017 The Earliest Probable Hominins Sahelanthropus tchadensis in Chad Orrorin tugenensis in Kenya Ardipithecus ramidus in Ethiopia 9 Sahelanthropus tchadensis 7 6 Ma Chad Discovered in 2001 by Ahounta Djimdoumalbaye published by Michel Brunet Habitat lake forest riverine wooded savanna No postcranial bones 10 5 11 22 2017 Some Sahelanthropus morphology Primitive chimp or gorilla like Very large thick browridge Chimp like cranial capacity 320 380 cubic centimeters cc Derived human like Reduced prognathism Small canines Foramen magnum position Fossil is heavily distorted 11 Virtual Reconstruction 12 6 11 22 2017 Sahelanthropus tchadensis Gorilla Pan Homo 13 Miocene ape The Earliest Probable Hominins Sahelanthropus tchadensis in Chad Orrorin tugenensis in Kenya Ardipithecus ramidus in Ethiopia 14 7 11 22 2017 Orrorin tugenensis 6 1 5 8 Ma Tugen Hills Kenya Bipedal Smaller molars than Australopithecus afarensis Fragmented teeth mandible humerus femora and phalanges 15 Orrorin Orrorin tugenensis Bipedal inferior neck 3x thicker than superior neck human inferior neck 4x thicker than superior neck chimp both surfaces approx equal in thickness 16 8 11 22 2017 Orrorin tugenensis Gorilla Pan Homo Miocene ape 17 The Earliest Probable Hominins Sahelanthropus tchadensis in Chad Orrorin tugenensis in Kenya Ardipithecus ramidus in Ethiopia 18 9 11 22 2017 Ardipithecus Found first in 1992 by White et al but only published in partial detail in 2009 Two species A kadabba 5 8 5 5 Ma A ramidus 4 4 3 9 Ma 19 Ardipithecus ramidus cranial morphology Similar to Sahelanthropus Cranial capacity 300 350 cc Foramen magnum placed beneath the cranium Base of cranium in evolutionary direction towards hominins No canine honing facet Reduced canine Less sexual dimorphism than chimp but more than humans 20 20 10 11 22 2017 Dental comparison of Chimpanzee vs Human evolutionary polarity of dental traits Chimpanzee vs Human CP3 Prominent vs reduced canines Presence of CaninePremolar3 CP3 homing complex vs absence U shaped dental arcade vs parabolic dental arcade Thin enamel vs thick enamel Small molars vs larger molars 21 21 Ardipithecus ramidus postcranial morphology Short broad pelvis Abductable big toe but used as a stabilizer in bipedal locomotion Primitive foot with some bipedal features Intermembral index close to 1 0 No suspensory or knucklewalking adaptations 22 22 11 11 22 2017 Ardipithecus ramidus reconstructed Suggested to be a facultative biped terrestrially and a four hand climber clamberer arboreally Unique combination not seen in other apes but includes many features similar to earliest apes 12 million years earlier A ramidus in some ways is unlike chimpanzees suggesting that the LCA differs from the modern chimpanzee confirming that after the chimpanzee and human lineages diverged both underwent substantial evolutionary change LCA may not have been as chimp like as previously thought 23 23 Ardipithecus ramidus Gorilla Pan Homo Miocene ape 24 24 12 11 22 2017 ALA 10 A Take Home assignment turn in next week Week 13 1 page in length 1 What do Jill Pruetz and Andrew Whiten cite as unique cultural characteristics for their group of chimpanzees in Senegal 2 Can chimpanzees cooperate with each other Briefly describe an experiment that shows this 3 Can chimpanzees anticipate the motives of others Describe an experiment that shows this www dcl umn edu Title Nova Ape Genius 4 What does the film cite as a possible limiting factor to nonhuman ape cooperation What Separates Apes from Humans 5 What is the attention triangle and how does this ID 4007567 relate to the human vs nonhuman ape ability to 25 teach 26 13 11 22 2017 27 28 14 11 22 2017 I suggest watching this on a computer not a smart phone or tablet but do what works 29 30 15 11 22 2017 Problems with phylogenetic tree reconstruction with poor sampling 31 31 Chimpanzee Gorilla Pan Modern human Human Orrorin tugenensis Ardipithecus ramidus Sahelanthropus tchadensis Miocene ape 32 32 16 11 22 2017 ALA 11 What other bones or skeletal features would support an interpretation that Orrorin tugenensis was a biped besides its proximal femur 33 Chimp Iliac blades in Coronal plane Biped Iliac blades in Sagittal plane 34 17


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