U of M ANTH 1001 - Lecture 18 11-21-17 The Early Hominins (17 pages)

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Lecture 18 11-21-17 The Early Hominins



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Lecture 18 11-21-17 The Early Hominins

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Pages:
17
School:
University of Minnesota- Twin Cities
Course:
Anth 1001 - Human Evolution
Human Evolution Documents

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11 22 2017 1 Course Business Midterm 2 descriptive stats Group Size 47 Mean 37 1 Standard Deviation 4 9 Variance 24 0 Highest Possible Score 50 Highest Obtained Score 49 Lowest Obtained Score 27 Range of Scores 23 90th Percentile Score 42 8 75th Percentile Score 41 0 50th Percentile Score Median 37 4 25th Percentile Score 33 8 10th Percentile Score 30 1 2 1 11 22 2017 The Early Probable Hominins and Gracile Australopiths 3 Topics for Today The earliest possible bipeds The earliest positively bipedal taxa the gracile Australopiths Genus Australopithecus 4 2 11 22 2017 Earliest probable Hominins 7 5 million yeas ago Hominin adaptive radiation 4 1 million P robustus P aethiopicus P boisei 5 Play the Paleoanthropological version of CLUE looking for the different characters in the narrative Who species name With what locomotor dietary and behavioral adaptations Where geographic area habitat coverage When time range 6 3 11 22 2017 Probable Hominins various Genera Gracile Hominins Australopithecus Robust Hominins Paranthropus P robustus P aethiopicus P boisei 7 The Earliest Probable Hominins Gorilla Pan Homo LCA last common ancestor shared between Homo and Pan Miocene ape 8 4 11 22 2017 The Earliest Probable Hominins Sahelanthropus tchadensis in Chad Orrorin tugenensis in Kenya Ardipithecus ramidus in Ethiopia 9 Sahelanthropus tchadensis 7 6 Ma Chad Discovered in 2001 by Ahounta Djimdoumalbaye published by Michel Brunet Habitat lake forest riverine wooded savanna No postcranial bones 10 5 11 22 2017 Some Sahelanthropus morphology Primitive chimp or gorilla like Very large thick browridge Chimp like cranial capacity 320 380 cubic centimeters cc Derived human like Reduced prognathism Small canines Foramen magnum position Fossil is heavily distorted 11 Virtual Reconstruction 12 6 11 22 2017 Sahelanthropus tchadensis Gorilla Pan Homo 13 Miocene ape The Earliest Probable Hominins Sahelanthropus tchadensis in Chad Orrorin tugenensis in Kenya Ardipithecus ramidus in Ethiopia 14 7 11 22 2017 Orrorin tugenensis 6 1 5 8 Ma Tugen Hills Kenya Bipedal Smaller molars than Australopithecus afarensis Fragmented teeth mandible humerus femora and phalanges 15 Orrorin Orrorin tugenensis Bipedal inferior neck 3x thicker than superior neck human inferior neck 4x thicker than superior neck chimp both surfaces approx equal in thickness 16 8 11 22 2017 Orrorin tugenensis Gorilla Pan Homo Miocene ape 17 The Earliest Probable Hominins Sahelanthropus tchadensis in Chad Orrorin tugenensis in Kenya Ardipithecus ramidus in Ethiopia 18 9 11 22 2017 Ardipithecus Found first in 1992 by White et al but only published in partial detail in 2009 Two species A kadabba 5 8 5 5 Ma A ramidus 4 4 3 9 Ma 19 Ardipithecus ramidus cranial morphology Similar to Sahelanthropus Cranial capacity 300 350 cc Foramen magnum placed beneath the cranium Base of cranium in evolutionary direction towards hominins No canine honing facet Reduced canine Less sexual dimorphism than chimp but more than humans 20 20



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